The scientific side of steroid use and abuseWe obtained anabolic steroids articles 2012 data from 50 male users testing positive for AAS and 16 previous users and 59 controls testing negative. We used ICA and dual regression, and defined connectivity matrices as anabolic steroids articles 2012 between-node temporal partial correlations. Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid AAS use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested stteroids effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date.
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The prevalence of substance use among bodybuilding athletes has been poorly studied in Iran. This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of drug use, especially anabolic steroids, among bodybuilding athletes.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in the first half of among body building athletes referring to gyms located in Kerman, Iran. Five gyms were selected randomly and athletes were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, consecutively. The questionnaire included two parts; baseline characteristics and substance related questions. The prevalence of anabolic steroids was estimated based on three methods; self-report, projective question, and crosswise model.
We enrolled male athletes in the final analysis. The second most frequently used drug was alcohol Based on self-reports, the prevalence of lifetime anabolic steroid use was calculated to be The corresponding figure based on crosswise method was obtained to be The main reason for using anabolic steroids was to increase muscle size. The prevalence of drug use, especially tobacco, alcohol, and anabolic steroids, was high among bodybuilding athletes.
We could not rely on self-reports to examine anabolic steroid use. Anabolic androgenic steroids, which are named anabolic steroids, are synthetic derivatives of testosterone the male sex hormone ; the history of their use reaches back to 88 years ago for medical purposes.
Anabolic steroid use shows an increasing trend among athletes worldwide. Most studies devoted to the prevalence of anabolic steroids are conducted in the developed world. It has been proposed that surveys can be considered as the gold standard for estimating the prevalence of common drugs such as tobacco, but they could not be included as a reliable method for problematic drugs.
Thereafter, by using a formula the probability of the sensitive question could be computed. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kerman city, the center of Kerman Province as the largest province of Iran. Five bodybuilding gyms were selected randomly out of 50 gyms of the city using stratified random sampling.
The questionnaire consisted of two parts; baseline characteristics such as age, marital status, and education , and a substance related part, which included questions about lifetime and recent use of cigarettes, waterpipe, opiates, alcohol, and anabolic steroids e.
The name of common anabolic steroids was extracted from interviews with athletes, trainers, and drug sellers. The participants were also asked: To estimate the prevalence of anabolic steroid use, two other techniques were also utilized. To compare anabolic steroid use based on categorical and ordinal variables chi-square, and chi-square test for trend were used, respectively.
Of the questionnaires completed by athletes, The probability of lifetime use of anabolic steroids was The crosswise model showed that The main reasons for use of anabolic steroids are shown in figure 1. Comparison of recent anabolic steroid use among bodybuilders according to baseline characteristics revealed significant differences between subgroups except for age Table 2.
This study revealed that a significant proportion of bodybuilding athletes have used substances both in the past 30 days and during their lifetime. Understanding the pattern and prevalence of drug use in different groups of the community can guide policymakers toward informed decisions on tailoring preventive measures.
Waterpipe tobacco and alcohol were the most prevalently used substances by athletes. Compared to a study on university students conducted in the same city, the rate of problem drug use was higher in athletes. A study performed on a sample representative of the general population of the same city revealed a higher prevalence rate of opiate use. In Iran, waterpipe tobacco seems to be the most popular substance among adolescents and this pattern was also seen in athletes.
Surprisingly, the prevalence of alcohol use was high A recent review showed that In this study, the most frequently abused drug was alcohol except for tobacco. In a Nigerian study, it was shown that alcohol was the most frequently abused drug by sportsmen for sports performance.
Anabolic steroids were reported to be used by The figure obtained by crosswise model was To find out which method gives a more accurate value, their perceived prevalence among friends was also questioned. Hence, it seems that direct questioning does not yield valid estimates of the prevalence of anabolic steroid use. In this study, three methods were used to estimate the prevalence of anabolic steroid use; burying the sensitive question in a series of questions concerning other drugs, perceived prevalence of anabolic steroid use by peers, and the crosswise model.
All methods were used to lessen the embarrassing nature of straightforward questioning. All figures obtained by these three methods showed a higher rate comparing to a similar study conducted in the same population and setting i.
Moreover, among the three abovementioned methods to resolve the sensitivity of questions the crosswise model seems to be more valid. A possible reason for this finding may be the fact that bodybuilders want to have a more muscular physique, and they desire to show that the increase in muscle mass is due to regular exercise not doping. As expected the main reason for anabolic steroid use was increase in muscle mass Figure 1.
It has been shown that anabolic steroid use is strongly motivated by social influences and males associate their attractiveness to increased muscle mass and a muscular body shape. This was in line with findings of a study conducted in United Arab Emirates. A similar finding was obtained by Al-Falasi et al.
The main limitation of this study was the lack of a gold standard, such as laboratory serum analysis, to confirm the anabolic steroid use objectively.
In conclusion, the prevalence of drug use seems to be high among bodybuilders. Self-reports could not be included as a valid method for estimation of anabolic steroid use in Iranian settings. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Addict Health v. Received Nov 15; Accepted Feb This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The prevalence of substance use among bodybuilding athletes has been poorly studied in Iran.
Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the first half of among body building athletes referring to gyms located in Kerman, Iran. Findings We enrolled male athletes in the final analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of drug use, especially tobacco, alcohol, and anabolic steroids, was high among bodybuilding athletes.
Substance abuse, Anabolic steroids, Athletes, Iran. Introduction Anabolic androgenic steroids, which are named anabolic steroids, are synthetic derivatives of testosterone the male sex hormone ; the history of their use reaches back to 88 years ago for medical purposes. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kerman city, the center of Kerman Province as the largest province of Iran.
Results Of the questionnaires completed by athletes, Substance Ever use Recent use past 30 days Cigarette Open in a separate window. Main reasons for use of anabolic steroids among bodybuilding athletes. Main source of recommendation to use anabolic steroids by bodybuilding athletes. Table 2 Frequency of recent anabolic steroid use according to baseline characteristics. Discussion This study revealed that a significant proportion of bodybuilding athletes have used substances both in the past 30 days and during their lifetime.
Conclusion In conclusion, the prevalence of drug use seems to be high among bodybuilders. Footnotes Conflicts of Interest The Authors have no conflict of interest. Encyclopedia of substance abuse prevention, treatment, and recovery.
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