ClenbuterolTheophyllinealso known as 1,3-dimethylxanthineis a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and asthma under a variety of brand names. As a dbol no energy of the xanthine family, it bears clenbuterol wikipedia arabic and pharmacological similarity to theobromine and caffeineclenbuterol wikipedia arabic is readily found in nature, and is present in tea Camellia sinensis and cocoa Theobroma cacao. A small amount of theophylline is one of the products of caffeine metabolic processing in the liver. A clinical study reported in that theophylline was helpful in improving the sense of smell in study subjects with anosmia. The use of theophylline is complicated by its clenbuterol wikipedia arabic with various drugs and by the fact that it has a narrow therapeutic window.
Theophylline - Wikipedia
Theophylline , also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine , is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and asthma under a variety of brand names. As a member of the xanthine family, it bears structural and pharmacological similarity to theobromine and caffeine , and is readily found in nature, and is present in tea Camellia sinensis and cocoa Theobroma cacao.
A small amount of theophylline is one of the products of caffeine metabolic processing in the liver. A clinical study reported in that theophylline was helpful in improving the sense of smell in study subjects with anosmia. The use of theophylline is complicated by its interaction with various drugs and by the fact that it has a narrow therapeutic window. It can also cause nausea, diarrhea, increase in heart rate, abnormal heart rhythms , and CNS excitation headaches, insomnia , irritability, dizziness and lightheadedness.
It can reach toxic levels when taken with fatty meals, an effect called dose dumping. In addition to seizures , tachyarrhythmias are a major concern. Like other methylated xanthine derivatives , theophylline is both a. It has been shown that theophylline may reverse the clinical observations of steroid insensitivity in patients with COPD and asthmatics who are active smokers a condition resulting in oxidative stress via a distinctly separate mechanism.
Theophylline in vitro can restore the reduced HDAC histone deacetylase activity that is induced by oxidative stress i. It has recently been shown that the oxidative stress associated with cigarette smoke can inhibit the activity of HDAC2, thereby blocking the anti-inflammatory effects of corticosteroids.
Theophylline is naturally found in cocoa beans. Amounts as high as 3. Theophylline is distributed in the extracellular fluid, in the placenta, in the mother's milk and in the central nervous system.
The volume of distribution is 0. The volume of distribution may increase in neonates and those suffering from cirrhosis or malnutrition, whereas the volume of distribution may decrease in those who are obese. It undergoes N -demethylation via cytochrome P 1A2. It is metabolized by parallel zero order and Michaelis-Menten pathways. Metabolism may become saturated non-linear , even within the therapeutic range.
Small dose increases may result in disproportionately large increases in serum concentration. Methylation to caffeine is also important in the infant population. Smokers and people with hepatic liver impairment metabolize it differently. Both THC and nicotine have been shown to increase the rate of theophylline metabolism. Clearance of the drug is increased in children age 1 to 12 , teenagers 12 to 16 , adult smokers, elderly smokers, as well as in cystic fibrosis , and hyperthyroidism.
Clearance of the drug is decreased in these conditions: The elimination half-life varies: Theophylline was first extracted from tea leaves and chemically identified around by the German biologist Albrecht Kossel. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A [ citation needed ] US: C Risk not ruled out.
S4 Prescription only CA: P Pharmacy medicines US: Annals of Emergency Medicine. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Prog Clin Biol Res. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.
Induction of histone deacetylase activity to decrease inflammatory gene expression". Hirsch in Frankfurt Main ". Drugs for obstructive airway diseases: Abediterol Carmoterol Indacaterol Olodaterol Vilanterol. Epinephrine Hexoprenaline Isoprenaline isoproterenol Orciprenaline metaproterenol. Aclidinium bromide Glycopyrronium bromide Ipratropium bromide Oxitropium bromide Tiotropium bromide Umeclidinium bromide.
By mouth , IV , rectal. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Theophylline. Leukotriene antagonists Montelukast Pranlukast Zafirlukast.