Anabolic steroidsAnabolic steroids are compounds, derived from testosterone, which promote tissue growth and repair. Because they have been used improperly by body builders and other athletes, they are controlled substances under United States federal law. Although these products have different labeled uses, they exophiala infection from contaminated injectable steroids very similar in action and side effects and may be used photos of anabolic steroids, subject to differences in route of administration and duration of action. Anabolic steroids are not recommended for young children because the drugs may cause an early end to the photos of anabolic steroids of long bones, which results in short stature. Anabolic steroids should be used with great care in girls, because the drugs have masculinizing properties.
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Anabolic steroids are compounds, derived from testosterone, which promote tissue growth and repair. Because they have been used improperly by body builders and other athletes, they are controlled substances under United States federal law.
Although these products have different labeled uses, they are very similar in action and side effects and may be used interchangeably, subject to differences in route of administration and duration of action. Anabolic steroids are not recommended for young children because the drugs may cause an early end to the growth of long bones, which results in short stature. Anabolic steroids should be used with great care in girls, because the drugs have masculinizing properties. The drugs should be reserved for situations in which the benefits outweigh the risk.
Anabolic steroids have been associated with liver cancer , and they have psychological effects, such as contributing to rage attacks. Anabolic steroids cause masculinization of females, including hair growth or loss, enlargement of the clitoris, and deepening of the voice. These effects are not reversible, even when the drug is promptly discontinued.
In males past the age of puberty , side effects include increased urinary frequency, breast tenderness and enlargement, and frequent erections. In both males and females, anabolic steroids cause swelling of the feet, liver problems, and stomach upset. This list of side effects is incomplete; many additional effects have been reported. Specialized drug references maintain for a complete list for each individual drug, including analysis of psychological effects of these drugs that contribute to rage attacks.
Anabolic steroids have an anticoagulant effect. They should be used with care in combination with other drugs that have the same effect, including warfarin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs , and aspirin. Simultaneous use of anabolic steroids and corticosteroids will increase the risk of foot and ankle swelling.
The combination is very likely to cause acne. Anabolic steroids may also lower blood glucose levels. They should be used with extreme care in patients taking insulin or other antidiabetic drugs. Other drug interactions have also been reported. Because of the nature of the adverse effects of anabolic steroids, their use should be restricted to cases where the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.
Regular blood testing for blood counts and liver function is essential. Parents should observe the patient carefully for signs of liver damage, including headache , unpleasant breath odor, and black tarry stools. Anabolic — Refers to metabolic processes characterized by the conversion of simple substances into more complex compounds.
Catabolism — A process of metabolism that breaks down complex substances into simple ones. Testosterone — Male hormone produced by the testes and in small amounts in the ovaries.
Testosterone is responsible for some masculine secondary sex characteristics such as growth of body hair and deepening voice. It also is sometimes given as part of hormone replacement therapy to women whose ovaries have been removed. Turner syndrome — A chromosome abnormality characterized by short stature and ovarian failure caused by an absent X chromosome. It occurs only in females. San Diego , CA: Icon Group International, Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete.
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Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Anabolic steroids are synthetic chemicals that mimic the effects of the male sex hormone testosterone. Some athletes seeking increased muscular strength and size abuse anabolic steroids. They may reach their goal of increased strength in the short term but risk serious medical complications in the long term.
As a result, isometric muscle strength increases. These steroids are also androgenic, which means that they cause changes characteristic of males, such as growth of facial hair, loss of scalp hair, deepening of the voice, skin oiliness, and aggressive behavior. A female taking anabolic steroids experiences irregular menstrual periods and atrophy of the breasts and uterus, and develops the male-associated characteristics.
A male may develop an enlarged prostate and atrophy of the testicles. Steroid abuse stunts height, increases weight, dampens immunity, and can damage the kidneys, liver, and heart. Blood vessels may become blocked with fatty plaque. The liver may develop tumors, and infertility is common. Psychiatric symptoms include depression, delusions, and violent tendencies, sometimes called "'roid rage.
Athletes call anabolic steroids 'roids, juice, pump, or hype. Some of the one hundred varieties are oxymetholone, oxandrolone, and stanozolol taken orally and nandrolone and boldenone taken by injection. Abusers may take one huge dose seeking instant strength, slowly build up the dose pyramiding , or "stack" different types of steroids. Whatever the delivery route, the message to the body is the same: Despite the well-known side effects of anabolic steroids, use among athletes is widespread, perhaps because of the example set by professional baseball, basketball, and hockey players who use them.
Still, about 30 percent of college and professional athletes use anabolic steroids, as do 10 to 20 percent of high school athletes. Olympic athletes have often been punished for steroid use. After Canadian Ben Johnson flew past his competitors in the meter run in the summer Olympics, officials rescinded his gold medal when a urine test revealed stanozolol in Johnson's system.
His natural testosterone level was only 15 percent of a normal male's. Shot-putters, discus throwers, wrestlers, and swimmers have also been known to use anabolic steroids. In , a urine test on U. Hunter revealed one thousand times the allowable limit of nandrolone. Anabolic steroids do have legitimate medical uses.
They were first synthesized in the s to treat underdeveloped testes and resulting testosterone deficiency. In the s, they were used to treat anemia and muscle-wasting disorders and to bulk up patients whose muscles had atrophied from extended bed rest. In the s, anabolic steroids were used to treat some forms of dwarfism.
Today anabolic steroids are being studied for their ability to alleviate the extreme body wasting associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS. Their most common use, however, remains among athletes seeking a quick competitive edge. American Academy of Pediatrics.
Play Safe, Play Fair. National Institute of Drug Abuse. Used to treat uncontrolled weight loss in wasting diseases, anabolic steroids have also been taken by bodybuilders and athletes seeking increased muscle mass, strength, and stamina.
Such use is banned by the International Olympic Committee and other governing bodies in sports, but not all sports test for steroids. Under a federal law it is illegal to distribute anabolic steroids for nontherapeutic uses, and in they joined other abused drugs as controlled substances. Nonetheless, a precursor hormone called dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA , which can convert to testosterone in the body, is available as a dietary supplement without a prescription. Abuse of anabolic steroids may lead to elevated cholesterol levels, liver disease, blood clots leading to heart attack or stroke, increased aggressiveness and irritability, and, in adolescents, permanent stunting of growth.
Anabolic steroids are synthetic versions of the naturally occurring male sex hormone, testosterone. They are more properly called anabolic-androgenic steroids AASs , because they have both bodybuilding anabolic effects and masculinizing androgenic effects. The masculinizing effects of testosterone cause male characteristics to appear during puberty in boys, such as enlargement of the penis, hair growth on the face and pubic area, muscular development, and deepened voice.
Females also produce natural testosterone, but ordinarily in much smaller amounts than males. AASs are sometimes referred to simply as steroids. Steroid means only that a substance either resembles cholesterol in its chemical structure or is made from cholesterol in the body.
Thus, AASs are one kind of steroid. They are not to be confused with an entirely different group of steroids called corticosteroids — of which prednisone and cortisone are examples — which are commonly used to treat illnesses such as arthritis, colitis, and asthma. In contrast to anabolic steroids, corticosteroids can cause muscle tissue to be wasted. AASs are also referred to as ergogenic drugs, which means performance-enhancing.
Street or slang terms for AASs include "roids" and "juice. Soon after testosterone was first isolated and synthesized in the laboratory in , a number of synthetics were created to be used as medicines. The synthetic forms were developed because natural testosterone did not work very long when given as a pill or injection it is subject to rapid breakdown in the body. Bodybuilders may have begun using AASs to build muscle size and strength as early as the s. Olympic athletes started to use these drugs in the s.
Most of this use went undetected, however, because the technology of drug testing did not allow reliable detection of AASs in the urine until the Olympic Games. In the same year, a study reported that 6. This study made it clear that elite athletes were not the only ones taking these drugs. Schedule III Controlled Substances are recognized to have value as prescribed medicines, but also have a potential for abuse that may lead to either low to moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
Table 1 lists the names of some AASs that bodybuilders have used. Two naturally occurring steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA and androstenedione, are used by the body to make testosterone and estrogen Corrigan, The benefits and adverse effects of synthetic DHEA and androstenedione are mostly unknown, but they are commonly believed to have anabolic and androgenic effects.
Testosterone has a four-ring structure composed of nineteen carbon atoms. Accordingly, the carbon atoms are labeled by number from one to nineteen see Figure 1. Many synthetic forms of testosterone are made by adding either an alkyl group or an ester to the seventeen-carbon atom.