Legal.High.E01.720p.HDTV.x264.AAC-YYeTsThis paper examines fansubbing as a social phenomenon in the complex socio-political context of China. Super mass gainer effects legal high yyets to the fansubbing group YYeTsthe discussion will focus on both textual and extra-textual levels of Chinese fansubbing in order to explore how it strives to introduce contemporary foreign audiovisual products into the Chinese context. The emerging discussion will draw briefly on the persistent development of fansubbing in China in legal high yyets of repression by the government. It will explore the inner structure of YYeTs in terms of the distribution of labour among members of the group and its methods lefal recruit and train newcomers. A legal high yyets focus will be the creativity in fansubs e.
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This paper examines fansubbing as a social phenomenon in the complex socio-political context of China. With reference to the fansubbing group YYeTs , the discussion will focus on both textual and extra-textual levels of Chinese fansubbing in order to explore how it strives to introduce contemporary foreign audiovisual products into the Chinese context. The emerging discussion will draw briefly on the persistent development of fansubbing in China in spite of repression by the government.
It will explore the inner structure of YYeTs in terms of the distribution of labour among members of the group and its methods to recruit and train newcomers. A further focus will be the creativity in fansubs e. Foreign audiovisual programmes are prominent in state-level television networks, particularly Central Chinese Television CCTV , which has broadcast several popular American television series e. A greater variety of foreign audiovisual programmes are videostreamed by major private Chinese websites such as Sohu and Youku.
Despite this, stringent appraisal policies tend to stifle access to foreign electronic entertainment products in those officially sanctioned domains where the Chinese government maintains a stronghold in censorship without implementing a comprehensive and transparent rating system Wang and Zhang The government often intervenes in the private sector by forcing video websites to remove particular series and films from their videostreaming outlets and depriving private enterprises of their autonomy in appraising and translating copyrighted audiovisual programmes Hu ; Zhang and Mao In China, a vast number of individuals gather to not only participate in the networked production of fansubs but also strive to build a consistent, iconic and unified identity of their group as a subtitling agent.
It is through the identity of the fansubbing group that the audience accesses and comprehends foreign originals, and it is with that identity that target audiences communicate via a wide range of interactive social activities online Wang and Zhang in press. Despite its expansion in the last three decades or so, fansubbing has only recently begun to be recognised by research in translation Munday As for the research focusing on the Chinese context, Ding analysed the creativity of fansubbing in maintaining the register of the original and acceptability of the meaning of the source-language dialogue.
In viewing the popularity of foreign television series, Nie states that the limitation on foreign sitcoms in officially sanctioned broadcasting outlets is due to the challenge these foreign sitcoms represent in translation; vulgar dialogue, in particular, is considered unacceptable by the vast majority of Chinese viewers. In contrast, empirical findings by others have shown that young people, who form the majority of the audience of foreign audiovisual programmes, are often accepting of strong language and expect it to be preserved in translation Gao ; Hsiao ; Wilson Ma considers the popularity of American TV series in China an inevitable consequence of the rise of the Internet in China.
He also states that the Chinese audience must treat popular American television series critically, so as to prevent a cultural invasion. Hu emphasises that the non-profit activities of fansubbing are nevertheless illegal but recognises the neoliberalism behind this fan-based cultural phenomenon. Despite the rising interests in relevant subjects in Chinese translation scholarship, research can still explore more systematically the development, operation and creativity of fansubbing in order to justify the contribution of fansubbing to the transfer of cultural and linguistic knowledge from elsewhere in the world to China.
This paper explores Chinese fansubbing as a social phenomenon at both textual and extra-textual levels. Second, it will draw briefly on the methods adopted by YYeTs in distributing labour among its members and recruiting and training newcomers. Third, it will elaborate on the creativity of fansubbing in adopting explanatory techniques and using colloquial language, and the influence of such creativity in the subtitling practice in state-sanctioned mass media.
Although the Chinese fansubbing network has developed significantly since the submission of the previous manuscript in , this revised version will not seek to elaborate extensively on those latest changes which are under exploration elsewhere Wang and Zhang in press. The main objective is to fill the gap between what has been studied and what is about to be revealed in the burgeoning area of fansubbing in the field of Translation Studies. The Chinese fansubbing network should be considered an efficient venue of audiovisual piracy, which is a stubborn and persistent business in China due to censorship, restriction on imports and high costs of cinema tickets and officially released home-video entertainment products Cai ; Gao While the international community makes China comply with the obligation for copyright protection Yang , efforts in repressing fansubbing groups place the government on the horns of a dilemma.
Fansubbing groups strive to provide a valid basis for free downloads while seeking to provide subtitling services for major domestic online entrepreneurs who wish to be seen to abide by the law Meng and Wu Fansubbing emerged in China in when broadband networks were established in every major city of the country Tian , joining the worldwide phenomenon of subtitling and sharing anime.
Between and , single anime episodes were subtitled, segmented into several shorter video clips and attached to individual posts made by fansubbers in Bulletin Board Systems or shared among acquainted fans by using the online social networking programme Tecent QQ. Fansubbing of English audiovisual programmes, particularly American television series, began in when the sitcom Friends was introduced to mainland China through the Internet and pirated DVDs. Although fansubbing primarily focuses on entertainment and popular culture, and most of target audiences are driven by curiosity and their imaginings about celebrities, television, film franchises, video games and so on, the reception of fansubbed materials inevitably subverts the efficiency of censorship.
In response, fansubbing groups now seek to cooperate with licensed domestic video websites which need capable partners to translate copyrighted foreign media contents Meng and Wu Although cooperation with private video websites is freeing some fansubbing groups from accusations of infringement of copyright, their cooperation is also vulnerable to repression by the government which seeks to deprive the private sector of the rights of self-management and self-surveillance Hu Besides subtitling popular foreign television series, cooperation with the private sector also includes translating materials for civic education.
The screenshots in Figure 1 and 2 appear, respectively, at the beginning and the end of each session of the course Dante in Translation NetEase , showing the following information:. Screenshot taken on The report focused on the effort made by YYeTs to make the open courses accessible to Chinese audiences.
Despite this, such a positive comment from this state-owned English-language newspaper inevitably improved the public image of YYeTs.
Its contribution to the progress of public literacy in China is now known to every reader of this report and, more importantly, to those who watch the subtitled video recordings of the open courses. However, as is the case with foreign entertainment media, open courses have become extremely popular and therefore are of concern to many who consider the popularity of open courses from world-famous institutes a threat to domestic education in China Duan and Yu ; Tian and Hu Therefore, this area of cooperation may also be susceptible to potential repercussions from the government Tian Besides subtitled video clips, it also provided transcriptions of original dialogue and that of corresponding Chinese subtitles that could be used to help foreign-language learners improve their knowledge of colloquial language usage, their listening skills and source-language cultural references.
A user can view a video clip by choosing different modes. As Figure 3 shows, there is: The website had its IP address eliminated in late , due perhaps to the lack of participation from Internet users, and hence was considered as a failed project by YYeTs. Coincidentally, the Chinese government was targeting several fansubbing websites, including YYeTs, around the same time. To remain active, some fansubbing groups tried to operate with multiple servers and downloading platforms.
Between and , although YYeTs did not provide download links to some films on its own website, its members still produced the subtitles of these films and provided links to other websites where these films could be downloaded for free.
Figure 4 below shows the webpage supposed to provide the link to download the film Lone Ranger. Instead, a notice was put up in bold, red characters, saying: One of the links provided by YYeTs opens the relevant webpage of yayaxz. Besides video resources, viewers can also find a description of the plot of the film and options to share the information on Chinese social networks, the links of which are shown below the poster, as is shown in Figure 6. The fact that YYeTs refrains from providing downloading links suggests that they recognise fansubbing is illegal under Chinese legislation and thus make themselves plausible to a government striving to improve the copyright legitimacy in China in order to win global recognition Pang While being forced to erase all the resources from their websites, members of fansubbing groups still emphasise their conviction to target audiences — youth and young adults in particular Lv and Li — who are craving more foreign culture products in spite of persecution by the government.
To fansubbers, any means to this end should be the means serving public interests Hsiao On 6 February , YYeTs returned after the elimination of its original IP address and has been operating in two separate platforms since then. This section will briefly introduce the inner operation of YYeTs, with regards to the fansubbing process, and the recruitment and training of new members.
Investigating the internal affairs of fansubbing groups is no easy task. Due to the official repression, fansubbers are discreet about their true identities in order to avoid drawing unwelcome attention to themselves and their organisations Hsiao To achieve this, I acted as a volunteer and completed the first phase of training under the instruction of a tutor or tutors the email address I submitted my application and template of subtitles to might be used by several members who are assigned to assess applicants.
Unfortunately, I could not continue the trial period as, through my own experience and following communication with members of YYeTs, I realised the workload was unsustainable see the description of the selection process below.
However, I collected valuable information during this short-lived venture which lasted for two weeks into the world of fansubbing and thus was able to verify second-hand information gained from other channels such as journal articles, theses, news reports and fan blogs.
At present, members of YYeTs are producing fansubbed versions of a great variety of American television series. YYeTs requires that raw providers should have an operating system of Windows Vista or Window 7 installed on their personal computers Figure 7.
They also need to purchase and install various hardware and software programmes in order to use their personal computers to complete their tasks. Recorded materials are sent to different project teams for translation and conversion.
At this stage, subtitles of original programmes are produced by using the subtitling programme Time Machine Figure 10 , developed by the technological team of YYeTs. The translated subtitles are saved as SubRip Text SRT files and sent to a team of editors together with the original audiovisual programmes. The editors revise the translation before producing fansubbed videos in the format of RealMedia Variable Bitrate RMVB ; the latter process is conducted in cooperation with a group of time-coders who are responsible for spotting.
In a fansubbed video enhanced with Te Xiao Zi Mu , subtitles can appear in different colours, forms and at flexible positions as if they are part of the original. At the final stage, the fansubbed videos are submitted to a team of senior members who upload them to various websites for viewers to download. The human resources team of YYeTs will contact a candidate within 24 hours of his or her application having been submitted.
The candidate will receive links to download the training and test materials. These links can only be accessed during the period in which the candidate is under consideration for recruitment.
The candidate then needs to complete a subtitling test after studying all training materials. These are video instructions for using Time Machine, a minute video clip and a memo about rules applied to Chinese subtitling under the working standards of YYeTs.
The instruction videos are put into three sections: If the candidate does not make contact with the tutors of YYeTs on Tencent QQ in time, his or her access to the forum will expire; the candidate will be considered either irresponsible or unable to follow the working schedule of YYeTs and therefore incapable of being a dedicated member of the group.
The fansubbing process and the tests and training sessions for accessing prospective members imply the existence of a hierarchy which represents a vertical and tight-knit structure allowing members of YYeTs to cooperate with and provide constant support to each other, and to improve the translation and technological competences of newcomers. This hierarchy is similar to that seen in many web-based communities of non-professional translation see Pym et al. Yet, translation competence of fansubbing groups is a subject of enduring debate Bogucki ; Dwyer , and their technological expertise seen mostly in the use of explanatory techniques is also questioned due to the intrusive presentation of additional information on screen McClarty ; O'Hagan Despite this, both aspects bear witness to the creativity of fansubbing in linguistic and cultural mediation.
This section seeks to explore the creativity in fansubs in two aspects: Some noticeable influences of such creativity on state-sponsored subtitling will also be discussed. This is most typically represented in their explanatory techniques. To date, two types of explanatory techniques have been seen in fansubbed videos produced by YYeTs: The positioning of notes has become more and more flexible, as fansubbers seek to maintain the coherence between subtitles and visuals.
Textual inserts are presented through a more dedicated design to comply with the original which applies the same technique to provide information related to the narrative plot. In Figure 15, the translations are in the same colour, font and angle as the English text. Sherlock, Episode 1, Series 2 . Fansubbers often write such information in paragraphs and display them on screen while the credits are shown, assuming the audience will be interested in learning more about the background or contextual information.
In Figure 16, the information provided is about the positions held by Francis Underwood, the protagonist, and the two politicians who are having lunch with him in the early part of the episode. In addition, the sentence in the bottom line explains that, at the time of broadcasting, the actual majority in the United States House of Representatives is held by the Republicans, and thereby highlights the difference between the drama and the reality.
House of Cards, Episode 2, Season 1 . Explanatory notes are also used by television networks in China to produce intralingual subtitles of variety shows.
Explanatory techniques are yet to be used for interlingual subtitling in state-sponsored and commercial productions. Screenshot taken on 11 May Hence, by adopting explanatory techniques, fansubbers seek to register rather than neutralise the foreign. This outcome is in contrast to their use of colloquial language which naturalises the foreignness of the original in its fansubbed versions.