FACTBOX: Rules about steroid use in U.S. sportPositive best test cycle for beginners tests result in a zteroids suspension for a first offense, a game suspension for a second offense and a lifetime ban for a third offense. NFL Urine tests administered randomly during the season or offseason for anabolic steroids and amphetamines. Players must be tested at least once a year. Four-game suspension for oenalty first positive steroid test, six-game suspension for a second positive test and a penalty for using steroids in sports season for a third positive test. NBA Urine tests administered four times randomly during the season for steroids and amphetamines.
Testing policies and penalties for performance-enhancing drugs - Baltimore Sun
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Olympic ban on Russian track team upheld. Russian athletes under investigation. Russian officials ignoring doping rules. Is Maria Sharapova's failed drug test career ending?
Peyton Manning denies doping allegations. The evolution of doping in sport. CNN visits secretive Russian lab. Ban Russia from athletics for doping. WADA to consider banning countries for doping offenses. Doping still widespread in cycling. Disgraced sprinter now fights doping. A history of doping exposed. Sports doping scandal rocks Australia. The issue gained prominence as a result of the Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative BALCO investigation, tell-alls by former professional athletes, a report on drugs in professional baseball and a scandal involving Russia's Olympic team.
Drug scandals in sports. Drug scandals in sports — New York Yankees star Alex Rodriguez was suspended in August after he was accused of having ties to Biogenesis, a now-defunct anti-aging clinic, and taking performance-enhancing drugs.
The suspension covers regular-season games through the season. Rodriguez denied the accusations and said he intends to appeal. Twelve other Major League Baseball players received game suspensions without pay in the Biogenesis probe, and In July, Milwaukee Brewers star outfielder Ryan Braun was suspended for the rest of the season for violating the league's drug policy. Drug scandals in sports — Lance Armstong was stripped of his seven Tour de France titles and banned from professional cycling in October after being accused of using performance-enhancing drugs.
Armstrong confessed in January to doping during his cycling career. Drug scandals in sports — Barry Bonds is baseball's all-time home run leader, but some commentators say there should be an asterisk by his record. Though he's said he never knowingly used steroids, two San Francisco reporters wrote a book alleging he used performance-enhancing drugs. He was indicted on charges of perjury and obstructing justice for allegedly lying to a grand jury investigating steroids, and convicted of obstruction of justice.
Drug scandals in sports — Lyle Alzado was known as one of the most vicious lineman to ever play the game, and he chalked up more than sacks and almost 1, tackles. Drug scandals in sports — Known as "Rocket" for his aggressive pitching style, Roger Clemens played pro ball for more than two decades, racking up seven Cy Youngs.
He left Major League Baseball under a cloud of steroid allegations, despite a court finding him not guilty of perjury when he told Congress he never used the drugs. Drug scandals in sports — At 6-foot-5 and pounds, Alistair Overeem is known for putting mixed martial arts star Brock Lesnar into early retirement.
Ahead of a heavyweight title match against UFC champion Junior dos Santos in May, Overeem tested positive for elevated levels of testosterone and was yanked from the card. Drug scandals in sports — An early and chief accuser of Armstrong, Floyd Landis was himself stripped of his Tour de France title after testing positive for performance-enhancing drugs. He admitted doping in , the same year he accused many other riders of doping as well.
Drug scandals in sports — As the most decorated Olympian ever, with 22 medals, Michael Phelps is known as a fish in human's clothing, but for a brief period in , after a photo of him smoking a bong was made public, he also was known as a pothead.
Despite losing sponsors, he quickly became known for swimming again, securing six medals in the Games. Drug scandals in sports — Marion Jones was a world champion track and field athlete who won several titles in the s and five medals during the Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia. After admitting in that she had taken performance-enhancing drugs, she was stripped of the gold medals and other honors won after the Games.
Drug scandals in sports — Known as "Lights Out" after knocking out four players in a high school game, Shawne Merriman entered the NFL with fanfare, earning Rookie of the Year honors. His suspension for steroid use prompted the "Merriman Rule," prohibiting any player who tests positive for steroids from going to the Pro Bowl that year.
Drug scandals in sports — After his former Texas Rangers teammate Jose Canseco accused him of using steroids, Rafael Palmeiro appeared before Congress to deny the allegations. Later that year, he was suspended from baseball for testing positive for steroids.
He maintains to this day he has never knowingly taken performance enhancers. Drug scandals in sports — Few NBA players have tested positive for steroids, not only because the sport relies less on raw strength and speed than other sports but also because the league didn't begin testing until Miami Heat forward Don MacLean became the first to fail a test in , and he was suspended for five games. Drug scandals in sports — After racking up awards in college football, Ricky Williams was picked in the first round of the pro football draft in After testing positive for marijuana in as a Miami Dolphin, Williams retired and studied holistic medicine in California.
He returned to the Dolphins the following year, only to have more run-ins with the NFL drug policy. He retired again in Drug scandals in sports — Bill Romanowski was known for hard hits on the gridiron, but he also violently attacked teammate Marcus Williams during a scrimmage while playing for the Oakland Raiders. In a lawsuit, Williams blamed the attack on Romanowski's "roid rage.
Drug scandals in sports — Sprinter Tim Montgomery set the world record in the meter dash in , but the time was scratched after he was found to have used performance-enhancing drugs. Since his retirement, he has had other legal troubles including arrests for money laundering and heroin offenses.
He was sentenced to jail time for both. Louis Cardinals, breaking the single-season home run record in In , he admitted using steroids over the course of a decade but told Bob Costas in an interview he took them only for health reasons. Drug scandals in sports — Ross Rebagliati won a gold medal during the first year of snowboarding at the Olympics.
He was stripped of the medal after testing positive for the active ingredient in marijuana. It became fodder for late-night talk show jokes, but Rebagliati eventually got his medal back after it was determined marijuana was not a banned substance.
Drug scandals in sports — A winner of eight Grand Slam events, Andre Agassi was considered one of the most dominant tennis players of the s. In , the tennis pro acknowledged in his autobiography that he had failed a drug test for methamphetamine in but skirted punishment by blaming an assistant.
Drug scandals in sports — Regarded as the best soccer player after Pele, Diego Maradona was known for his deft footwork and knack for finding the net. In , he was suspended for 15 months after testing positive for cocaine.
He would later admit he was addicted to the drug for about 20 years and began using when he was playing for Barcelona in the s. Drug scandals in sports — A prolific sprinter in the s, Canadian Ben Johnson routinely bested American Carl Lewis in the meter dash. After winning the gold at Seoul in , Johnson tested positive for a steroid. His coach said Johnson took the drugs to keep up with other athletes and later wrote a book saying all top athletes were using in those days. There are several types of performance-enhancing drugs, including anabolic steroids, stimulants, human growth hormone and diuretics.
Anabolic steroids are natural and synthetic substances which help build muscle mass, enabling athletes to train harder and recover quickly from strenuous workouts. Tetrahydrogestrinone, also known as THG or the Clear, is a powerful steroid purportedly used by such high profile athletes as track star Marion Jones and baseball player Barry Bonds. Stimulants, including amphetamines, impact the central nervous system, increasing alertness and decreasing appetite.
Human growth hormone HGH is taken for improved endurance and strength. Androstenedione is a supplement that was sold over-the-counter until the FDA took action in The supplement is an anabolic steroid precursor, meaning that the body converts it into testosterone.
Diuretics are banned because they can be abused to mask other drugs in urine tests, and they are also taken to achieve rapid weight loss. February - Retired baseball star Jose Canseco publishes an autobiography, "Juiced: George Mitchell will lead the investigation. Gatlin is also forced to forfeit his meter world record. May - Tour de France winner Bjarne Riis admits using performance-enhancing drugs to win his title.
Race organizers tell him to return his yellow first-place jersey. September 20, - Cyclist Floyd Landis is stripped of his Tour de France title and he is banned for two years after a positive test for synthetic testosterone.
December 13, - The Mitchell Report is released. February - Former New York Mets clubhouse employee Kirk Radomski is sentenced to five years probation after pleading guilty to distributing steroids. February - Alex Rodriguez admits to using performance-enhancing drugs while playing for the Texas Rangers. January - Mark McGwire admits to using steroids during his career. February - Three-time Tour de France winner Alberto Contador is stripped of his title for doping.
Armstrong denies the charges. August - American cyclist Tyler Hamilton is stripped of his gold medal from the Olympics after he admits to doping. July - Ryan Braun of the Milwaukee Brewers is suspended without pay for the rest of the season for violating the league's drug policy. August - Anthony Bosch, the founder of a Miami anti-aging clinic, surrenders to the Drug Enforcement Administration. He later pleads guilty to a charge of distributing steroids to athletes.
His sentence is four years in federal prison. The agreement calls for HGH testing and an overhaul of the drug program. January - Kenya's Rita Jeptoo, a three-time Boston Marathon champion, is banned from competition for two years for doping.
September - The DEA announces that 90 people have been arrested and 16 underground steroid labs have been shut down in a sweeping drug bust called Operation Cyber Juice. November 9, - A WADA report details evidence of doping in Russian athletics and a "deeply rooted culture of cheating at all levels.