Farmaci antinfiammatori non steroidei paracetamoloTale espressione fu antinfiammatori non steroidei e paracetamolo negli anni '60 del XX secolo per sottolineare la differenza rispetto ai paracetamklo antinfiammatori steroidei impiegati in precedenza cortisone e derivatiche avevano provocato gravissimi effetti avversi nel decennio precedente . Tali farmaci sono detti "analgesici periferici" e agiscono sul metabolismo dell' acido arachidonico e dell'acido eicosapentenoico, precursori di molecole coinvolte nel processo equipoise para equinos quali prostaglandine PGprostacicline PCtrombossani TX e leucotrieni Paracetamoli. COX-1prodotto costitutivamente e ubiquitario in condizioni fisiologiche e COX-2sintetizzato in maniera inducibile e quasi assente se non in attiva fase infiammatoria. I FANS esistono in diverse forme, per uso topico in pomate, gel, unguenti, schiume e creme dermatologiche, in compresse e capsule per via orale, in sistemi per assorbimento transdermico comunemente definiti cerotti medicati o in antinfiammatori non steroidei e paracetamolo. Possono anche essere somministrati per via endovenosa presso un qualsiasi presidio ospedaliero o ambulatoriale certificato oppure per via intramuscolare tramite puntura.
Farmaci da evitare - per categoria
Tale espressione fu introdotta negli anni '60 del XX secolo per sottolineare la differenza rispetto ai tradizionali antinfiammatori steroidei impiegati in precedenza cortisone e derivati , che avevano provocato gravissimi effetti avversi nel decennio precedente .
Tali farmaci sono detti "analgesici periferici" e agiscono sul metabolismo dell' acido arachidonico e dell'acido eicosapentenoico, precursori di molecole coinvolte nel processo infiammatorio quali prostaglandine PG , prostacicline PC , trombossani TX e leucotrieni LT.
COX-1 , prodotto costitutivamente e ubiquitario in condizioni fisiologiche e COX-2 , sintetizzato in maniera inducibile e quasi assente se non in attiva fase infiammatoria. I FANS esistono in diverse forme, per uso topico in pomate, gel, unguenti, schiume e creme dermatologiche, in compresse e capsule per via orale, in sistemi per assorbimento transdermico comunemente definiti cerotti medicati o in supposte.
Possono anche essere somministrati per via endovenosa presso un qualsiasi presidio ospedaliero o ambulatoriale certificato oppure per via intramuscolare tramite puntura. Ecco un esempio di farmaci:. Infatti questi farmaci devono essere usati con cautela in questa categoria di pazienti a causa di gravi effetti indesiderati anche mortali . Inoltre i FANS possono avere un effetto epatotossico, sono controindicati in pazienti con scompenso cardiaco grave, in caso di ulcera peptica attiva e sono associati al peggioramento di un' asma preesistente .
Una meta-analisi che ha considerato i risultati di trial clinici per un totale di Secondo quanto riportato dal Ministero  , sono oltre i milioni spesi per i FANS consumo medio procapite di 8,55 euro contro gli 89 per gli oppiacei forti consumo medio procapite di 1. Questi medicinali, a causa dei loro effetti collaterali sull'apparato gastrointestinale, vengono associati ai gastroprotettori come per esempio: Antipiretico — Antipyretics are substances that reduce fever.
Antipyretics cause the hypothalamus to override a prostaglandin-induced increase in temperature, the body then works to lower the temperature, which results in a reduction in fever. Most antipyretic medications have other purposes, there is some debate over the appropriate use of such medications, as fever is part of the bodys immune response to infection.
The use of baths is not an appropriate cooling method. Traditional use of plants with antipyretic properties is a common worldwide feature of many ethnobotanical cultural systems.
In ethnobotany, plants with naturally occurring antipyretic properties are commonly referred to as febrifuges, the U. Food and Drug Administration notes that improper dosing is one of the biggest problems in giving acetaminophen to children.
The effectiveness of acetaminophen alone as an antipyretic in children is uncertain, therapies involving alternating doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen have shown greater antipyretic effect than either drug alone. One meta-analysis indicated that ibuprofen is more effective than acetaminophen in children at similar doses when both are given alone, due to concerns about Reye syndrome, the U.
Antipyretic was the word spelled by Joanne Lagatta to win the Scripps National Spelling Bee, on the second disc for the Final Fantasy Tactics soundtrack, there is a track titled Antipyretic. Anni — The s was a decade that began on January 1,, and ended on December 31, The term s also refers to an era more often called the Sixties and this cultural decade is more loosely defined than the actual decade, beginning around with the Kennedy assassination and ending around with the Watergate scandal.
Several Western nations such as the United States, United Kingdom, France, by the end of the s, war-ravaged Europe had largely finished reconstruction and began a tremendous economic boom. World War II had brought about a huge leveling of social classes in which the remnants of the old feudal gentry disappeared, the United States, after sluggish economic growth during the s, also experienced a major 60s boom. Thus, the worldwide economic trend in the s was one of prosperity, expansion of the middle class.
Kennedys assassination in was a shock, Liberal reforms were finally passed under Lyndon B. Johnson including civil rights for African Americans and healthcare for the elderly and the poor. Despite his large-scale Great Society programs, Johnson was increasingly reviled by the New Left at home, the heavy-handed American role in the Vietnam War outraged student protestors around the globe.
In France, the protests of led to President Charles de Gaulle temporarily fleeing the country, for some, May meant the end of traditional collective action and the beginning of a new era to be dominated mainly by the so-called new social movements. Italy formed its first left-of-center government in March with a coalition of Christian Democrats, Social Democrats, socialists joined the ruling block in December The resolution gave U.
Johnson authorization, without a declaration of war by Congress. The Johnson administration subsequently cited the resolution as legal authority for its rapid escalation of U.
Portuguese Colonial War — the war was fought between Portugals military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugals African colonies and it was a decisive ideological struggle and armed conflict of the cold war in African and European scenarios.
XX secolo — The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, and ended on December 31, It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the s, which began on January 1, and ended on December 31, It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from to It took all of history up to for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in , by late The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology.
The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle.
Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction.
World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system.
For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in , and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead.
The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States. Metabolismo — Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, usually, breaking down releases energy and building up consumes energy. The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical.
Enzymes act as catalysts that allow the reactions to proceed more rapidly, enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cells environment or to signals from other cells. The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious, for example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals. The speed of metabolism, the rate, influences how much food an organism will require.
A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the metabolic pathways. These striking similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their appearance in evolutionary history. Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three classes of molecule, amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. These biochemicals can be joined together to make such as DNA and proteins.
Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds, many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle.
Lipids are the most diverse group of biochemicals and their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules but will dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene or chloroform, the fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol, a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride.
Several variations on this structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids. Steroids such as cholesterol are another class of lipids. Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with hydroxyl groups attached.
Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy, the basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose.
Prostaglandine — The prostaglandins are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals and they are derived enzymatically from fatty acids. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring and they are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives.
The structural differences between prostaglandins account for their different biological activities, a given prostaglandin may have different and even opposite effects in different tissues in some cases. The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and they act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. Prostaglandins differ from endocrine hormones in that they are not produced at a specific site, prostaglandins are powerful locally acting vasodilators and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelets.
Through their role in vasodilation, prostaglandins are also involved in inflammation and they are synthesized in the walls of blood vessels and serve the physiological function of preventing needless clot formation, as well as regulating the contraction of smooth muscle tissue.
Conversely, thromboxanes are vasoconstrictors and facilitate platelet aggregation and their name comes from their role in clot formation. The name prostaglandin derives from the prostate gland, when prostaglandin was first isolated from seminal fluid in by the Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler, and independently by M. Goldblatt, it was believed to be part of the prostatic secretions, in fact, prostaglandins are produced by the seminal vesicles.
Corey in , an achievement for which he was awarded the Japan Prize in In , it was determined that aspirin-like drugs could inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, the biochemists Sune K. Samuelsson and John R. Vane jointly received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their research on prostaglandins, prostaglandins are found in most tissues and organs.
They are produced by almost all nucleated cells and they are autocrine and paracrine lipid mediators that act upon platelets, endothelium, uterine and mast cells. They are synthesized in the cell from the fatty acids. An intermediate arachidonic acid is created from diacylglycerol via phospholipase-A2, then brought to either the cyclooxygenase pathway or the lipoxygenase pathway, prostaglandins were originally believed to leave the cells via passive diffusion because of their high lipophilicity.
The release of prostaglandin has now also shown to be mediated by a specific transporter, namely the multidrug resistance protein 4.
Prostacicline — Prostacyclin is a prostaglandin member of the eicosanoid family of lipid molecules. It inhibits platelet activation and is also an effective vasodilator, when used as a drug, it is also known as epoprostenol. The terms are used interchangeably. During the s, a U. Working with a team from the Royal College of Surgeons, Sir John discovered that aspirin and this critical finding opened the door to a broader understanding of the role of prostaglandins in the body.
By , John Vane and fellow researchers Salvador Moncada, Ryszard Gryglewski, the collaboration produced a synthesized molecule, which was given the name epoprostenol. But, as with native prostacyclin, the structure of the epoprostenol molecule proved to be unstable in solution and this presented a challenge for both in vitro experiments and clinical applications.
To overcome this challenge, the team that discovered prostacyclin was determined to continue the research in an attempt to build upon the success they had seen with the prototype molecule. The research team synthesized nearly 1, analogues, prostacyclin is produced in endothelial cells, which line the walls of arteries and veins, from prostaglandin H2 by the action of the enzyme prostacyclin synthase. Although prostacyclin is considered an independent mediator, it is called PGI2 in eicosanoid nomenclature, the series-3 prostaglandin PGH3 also follows the prostacyclin synthase pathway, yielding another prostacyclin, PGI3.
It does this by inhibiting platelet activation and it is also an effective vasodilator.