Stream audiobook and download chaptersTak jednak nie jest. Wydany w lub r. Identycznie jest u Kochanowskiego. He came from a noble family. Kochanowski was born in Sycyna urszula treny kochanowski of Radom in
Tak jednak nie jest. Wydany w lub r. Identycznie jest u Kochanowskiego. He came from a noble family. Kochanowski was born in Sycyna territory of Radom in He stayed for some time in France, in Paris and other towns.
Finally, he came back to Poland in This was the beginning of a long period fifteen years spent in the royal court. The poet first became acquainted with Filip Padniewski, a vice-chancellor and bishop, then with Piotr Myszkowski, a vice-chancellor; he subsequently became involved in the work of the chancellery of King Zygmunt II August, where he was appointed his secretary.
Around , after Henryk Walezy had been elected and crowned, Kochanowski parted with the court. Having married Dorota Podlodowska, he settled in Czarnolas. The poet was deeply affected by the deaths of his daughters, Urszula and Hanna. Jan Kochanowski died suddenly on 22 August , while staying in Lublin.
Kochanowski started his creative activity by writing Latin poetry, epigrams and elegies, which were collected and published towards the end of his life in the volumes; Lyricorum libellus and Elegiarum libri III. He returned once again to Latin poetry in the final years of his life, writing odes and occasional poems, for example in honour of Stefan Batory. Not only did he create Latin poems in the early, Italian and French, periods, but this was also the time when he wrote his first Polish poems.
It is also a praise of God the Artist whose creation, the world, is distinguished by harmony and symmetry, and absolute beauty. Extremely popular, the hymn found its way into numerous collections of poetry and hymns.
In the period spent at court, epic poems, varied thematically and artistically, prevailed. Two epic poems of a moral and political character belong here: In the former, through the words of personified Concord, the author called upon the nobility and clergymen to abandon religious disputes. He referred discordant parties to Trident, where the ecumenical council was debating. He pointed out the dangers that the Kingdom of Poland was facing from outside enemies.
He spoke against the licence of the noblemen and the decline in morals, against the ignorance of priests and their narrow-mindedness in the issues of religion. Referring to patriotic feelings, he advocated giving up egoistic personal aims in favour of the common good of the homeland and its needs, improving the manners and morals, the law and the judiciary, but most of all unity and love.
In the other poem Satyr, who derives from the tradition of Antiquity and is portrayed in the tapestries in Wawel Castle, acts as a wise man or mentor. He is here also called Wild Man, after a protagonist present in the literature and culture of many countries, always ready to criticise society. Driven out of the forest by woodcutters, he gives an extensive speech reminding the reader of those by Members of Parliament or Senators. He criticises the functioning of Parliament and the judiciary, gives a negative evaluation of the condition of education, the lack of properly organised defence, the disappearance of the traditions of knighthood and the materialistic interests of the nobility and the clergy.
He does not avoid moral and ethical issues, showing that moral conduct and good manners together constitute the base for the existence and power of a country. As the author of Satyr , Kochanowski created the model of a Satyr poem, whose structure is as follows: Satyr , who does not belong to the reality that is being criticised.
His speech is in the form of a monologue with direct and vivid addresses to the auditorium, with vocabulary and grammar structures which seem to be taken out of Old-Polish orations. Landowner and Priest speak here. The latter takes the lead, while the landowner restricts himself to asking questions, occasionally sharing his observations and judgements.
The problems with which the Priest deals concern the reasons behind the fall of countries, discord especially due to "diversity of faith" , parting with "old but praiseworthy customs", the continuity of royal rule and protection of the borders. Remarks made on these topics refer to the Polish Republic of Nobles, its drawbacks and shortcomings on the one hand, on the other to all countries and the principles of their functioning.
Through the perspective of these general impressions and judgement of the then current situation of the Republic of Poland heirless King Zygmunt II August, neglected castles, the unsure fate of the union between the Polish Crown and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, faulty system of imposing taxes , Kochanowski tries to look into the future. This is not the case, however.
The starting point of his way of thinking about the future was an analysis of the state of the country, observations made during his studies and foreign travels, finally, a belief that the world, a result of constant human activity, could be continuously changed according to the needs and expectations of man.
Being fully aware of the failures of many ventures, Kochanowski still saw the usefulness and necessity of renewed attempts to repair the situation.
He believed that through a proper diagnosis and formulation of tasks, man and his moral stance could be gradually perfected as well as driven to create new values, organise life and legal order, solve religious problems and improv the defence system.
He always referred to his knowledge of Polish reality and not only Polish; he included here France and the Netherlands and to the philosophy of many authors Plato, Cicero, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski ; in doing so he undertook an attempt at a rational foresight of the future. A heroic-comic poem Szachy "Chess" is one of the early epic attempts. Published in or it appeared to be a paraphrase of the humorous and didactic work called Scacchia ludus by an Italian poet Marco Girolamo Vida.
He presented a game of chess played on the Mount Olympus by Apollo and Mercury the winner of the tournament , while the battle between the chess figures was subjected to the rules of heroic-comic convention. Writing about their fate, he used the rules of the classic epos of Homer and Virgil.
Kochanowski, however, did not follow the Italian original too closely. The chess figures are endowed with human features, are happy or sad, win or die. The clash between seriousness and humour, the grand style and the plot which had nothing in common with really heroic events, resulted in humorous effects as well as in the de-heroisation of the narrative parts of the poem. Due to these procedures the reader could encounter a parody of a heroic epos, i.
The parody became a source of amusement, an element of a literary game, dominated by humour, unusual ideas and puzzlement. As a requiem, it is fittingly a praise of the deceased and his ancestors, as well as a lament and a consolation. The epicedial part is complemented by a story of his love for a Swedish princess, Cecilia, and by descriptions of his travels, e. The last journey to Sweden is described in most detail.
A storm is presented here extremely dramatically. Although traces of Ovid, Virgil and Ariosto Orlando Furioso are clearly present here, Kochanowski, contrary to his mentors, did not develop the plot. The storm and the struggle of the ship with steep waves were very concisely presented and, what is most important, the poet departed from conventional patterns.
He did not perceive the sea only through the eyes of mythology or the experience of his literary predecessors, he never repeated their stereotypes. He did not restrict himself to registering the facts only, to enumerating all that happens on the ship as well as on the sea during the storm.
He became transformed into a painter especially sensitive to movement. The description of the storm is distinguished in Old-Polish literature through its unusual plasticity.
The work is the first poetic report of a sea voyage in Polish literature. A story about the events which were recorded on a banner given to the Prince "into his hand" during the ceremony in Lublin constitutes the main part of the poem. The selection and arrangement of the historical material which featured military activities main points: The lecture on the history of Polish- Teutonic wars, the origin of Poles and all Slavic countries, was subordinated to the frame of the poem and to what was said there about the then current situation between the Polish Crown and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Ducal Prussia.
In such a way the grandest problems of the day, i. The poet accepts the changes and takes the part of a mentor instructing the community of noblemen. Both authors concentrated on these scenes, the dramatic nature of the events, and not on the description of the shield itself.
Kochanowski does the same thing. Royal courtiers acted in the play and it was directed by Wojciech Oczko, the court physician who during his studies in Italy had studied the classical tragedy of the Renaissance, whose history had been started in Italy by Gian Giorgio Trissino Referring to the models of ancient tragedy Euripides, Sophocles, Seneca , he respected the rule of the three unities of time, place and plot, remembered about the division into epeisodia and the introduction of the chorus.
He soon became famous in Europe as the person who was continuing ancient tradition and found his followers. Kochanowski was among them. Just like Trissino he wrote his tragedy in his own language and, just like him, used blank verse. The choice of that event enabled Kochanowski to analyse the reaction of the citizens of Troy and that of Helen to their arrival and demands. In all epeisodia the characters state their position on the subject.
Some wanted to hand Helen over, others were against this, some spoke about the importance of the general public good Antenor , others thought about their own good above anything else Alexander-Paris. Although the main problem of the play — an individual against a country, the egoism of the citizens against the good of the community — was shown using the example of Troy with reference to Polish reality, it is of minor importance here. The play fits into the model of ancient tragedy. The author preserved the division into epeisodia, used songs of the chorus left out the parodos, the song of the chorus entering the stage, and the exodos, the song of the choir leaving the stage , preserved the unities of time one day , place in front of the royal palace and plot single-threaded, centred around Helen.
He remembered to have only two people talking on stage at the same time, although he abandons the idea in the last epeisodion. Odprawa is most closely connected with the tragedies of Euripides.
Following his example, the poet introduced stichomythia a polemic dialogue composed of concise rejoinders, often in the form of sententious sayings or proverbs, e. The plot takes place shortly before the war, when a real catastrophe cannot happen. The poet introduced its substitute: Varied thematically and artistically, they belong to reflective, philosophical, ethical, love II, 21 , moral I, 10 , jovial, civic, patriotic II, 5; II, 14 , auto-thematic II, 24; containing the apotheosis of poetry kinds of poetry.
Some of them are of a satirical and didactic character, full of remarks and invectives aimed at negative manifestations of social life. The philosophy of life contained in both collections grows out of Stoic and Epicurean philosophy, the Horatian idea of "the golden mean" "aurea mediocritas" , Christian thought, the rationalism and anthropocentrism of the Renaissance.
They were often imitated in the sixteenth century and the years to come. Consisting of stories told by twelve maidens, it referred to folklore; Slavic and Polish traditions of Midsummer Night celebrations. At the same time it made use of the pastoral motifs of the poetry of Ovid, Virgil and Horace, joining native tradition with ancient tradition. The maidens in their stories, stylised as "simple songs", expressed various feelings, emotions of happiness and melancholy, praised love, song and dance, developed the motifs taken out of folklore and myths.
In a collection composed of three books there are translations and adaptations of anacreontics, poems by Sappho and Martialis, epigrams taken from The Greek Anthology , but most of all original poems.
He wrote with respect about heroism I, 77; III, 49 , praised friendship and the cult of woman so popular at court. He used acerbic tones and malice profusely when he spoke about human weaknesses and pettiness, and never avoided difficult themes or moral liberties, even obscene issues.
The poet worked on it for many years. Conscious of the poetic excellence of his work, he thought it to be the best of his poetic achievements. The concept of God and man is influenced by ancient traditions and Renaissance ideas.