ClenbuterolIt has properties similar to those of salbutamol. It is used as a dianabol injektion dosierung in the management of reversible airways obstruction, as in asthma and in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clenbuterol hydrochloride has also been given by inhalation. In patients with asthma, as-required beta agonist therapy is preferable clenbuterol case studies regular use. An clenbuterol case studies need for, or decreased duration of effect of, clenbuterol indicates deterioration of asthma control and the need for review of therapy.
Clenbuterol - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
It has properties similar to those of salbutamol. It is used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airways obstruction, as in asthma and in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clenbuterol hydrochloride has also been given by inhalation.
In patients with asthma, as-required beta agonist therapy is preferable to regular use. An increased need for, or decreased duration of effect of, clenbuterol indicates deterioration of asthma control and the need for review of therapy.
Clenbuterol hydrochloride may be restricted in certain sports and competitors should check with the appropriate sports authorities. Clenbuterol has been used illicitly in animal feeds in an attempt to promote weight gain and to increase muscle to lipid mass. Adverse effects typical of sympathomimetic activity have been attributed to such misuse both in farmers perpetrating such acts and in innocent persons consuming meat products from affected animals.
Clenbuterol has been abused by sportsmen for its anabolic effects, although it is doubtful as to whether it enhances performance. Myocardial infarction was described in an otherwise healthy year-old bodybuilder after abuse of clenbuterol. Coronary artery spasm and temporary thrombosis were suggested as possible explanations for this adverse effect .
Clenbuterol may produce excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation at high doses tachycardia and tremors. Arrhythmias occur at high doses. Chronic use may have adverse effects on cardiac function in healthy horses.
There have been conflicting studies on the effects of clenbuterol on athletic performance of horses. In one study at approved doses it did not have any adverse effects on equine cardiac or skeletal muscle. In other studies it had negative effects on aerobic athletic performance, faster time to fatigue, decreased cardiac function, and decreased oxygen consumption.
The negative effects may occur because after repeated doses it down-regulates the adrenergic beta-2 receptor and results in decrease in receptor expression in skeletal muscle and lungs. Do not administer to animals intended for food. Veterinarians should be warned that clenbuterol is abused in humans for the purpose of muscle building and weight loss.
Subsequently, high doses in humans may cause cardiac toxicity, such as arrhythmias. Because clenbuterol is a beta-agonist, other adrenergic drugs will potentiate the action.
In addition, beta-blocking drugs will decrease action. Use with caution with any other drug that may stimulate the heart. It is a broncholytic and tocolytic drug, and it is commonly used in pregnant mares to suppress premature uterine contractions.
Contrary to this study, clenbuterol 0. Galea, in Side Effects of Drugs Annual , Clenbuterol adulteration of heroin has been recognized as a public health problem in the USA 45 c , 46 A , 47 r. Clenbuterol is a long-acting beta 2 -adrenoceptor agonist used to treat asthma and illegally by body-builders because of its anabolic properties. Exposure to clenbuterol -containing heroin can cause nausea, chest pain, palpitation, shortness of breath, and tremor. Physical findings include tachycardia and hypotension.
Significant laboratory effects include hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and lactic acidosis. The adverse effects of adulteration of heroin with clenbuterol in the context of heroin abuse have been reported in 34 probable cases of clenbuterol contamination 48 c. Sympathomimetic effects, metabolic acidosis, and myocardial injury were described. Exposure was confirmed in 13 patients, with clenbuterol concentrations of 2. This study highlights the importance of a public health approach to identification of trends.
In six cases there was evidence of myocardial damage from increased troponin concentrations. In 10 cases beta-adrenoceptor antagonists caused resolution of symptoms.
Clenbuterol is used by body-builders for its anabolic effects. A year-old man inhaled clenbuterol in powder form for unknown reasons 36 A. He immediately complained of headache, chest pain , and palpitation , and vomited. He required intubation for 4 days. Adulteration of heroin with clenbuterol is frequently reported [ A ].
In 13 confirmed cases of exposure to clenbuterol in this way, clenbuterol was identified in the blood and or urine of 12 [ c ]. Symptoms included nausea, chest pain, palpitation, dyspnea, and tremor.
The physical findings included significant tachycardia and hypotension, and there was laboratory evidence of hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and increased lactate concentrations; six patients had biochemical evidence of myocardial injury.
Ten were given beta-adrenoceptor antagonists without adverse effects. Clenbuterol was detected in 12 of postmortem cases in the USA in which the cause of death was attributed to illicit drug use [ c ]. In each case heroin use was either confirmed by the presence of 6-acetylmorphine or strongly suspected by the presence of morphine with a history of heroin abuse.
The authors suggested that one should test for clenbuterol when treating a suspected heroin user with an atypical presentation. A novel neuromuscular syndrome, characterized by muscle spasm, tremor, hyper-reflexia, and raised serum creatine kinase activity, has been described in five heroin users and attributed to clenbuterol adulteration [ c ]. The determination of fenoterol, clenbuterol , and salbutamol by the online coupling of capillary zone electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was reported by Mazereeuw et al.
There was no electrode at the capillary outlet, but ground potential was supplied by the mass spectrometer inlet capillary at ground potential. The electric field between the capillary tip and the mass spectrometer created the electrospray. The most common nonsteroidal anabolic agent is certainly clenbuterol and its detectability in hair is well documented [25—27].
It has a long record of being abused in human sports, horseracing, and is—whether legally or illegally—still widely ab used in meat-producing industry, leading to potential contaminations following the incorporation of affected meat. There are numerous confirmed cases of unintentional administration, and discrimination between a late abuse stage and an accidental intake cannot be achieved based on urinary concentrations. This became a serious issue when detection limits of conventional doping controls had improved.
A differentiation between illegal administration and unintended intake may be easily achieved by quantitative hair analysis. Positive clenbuterol findings within our routine analysis of human hair were submitted by police, prosecution and customs, unpublished data are in accordance. Hair concentrations ranged from 0. This quantitative discrimination is restricted to pigmented hair, due to the high melanin binding of clenbuterol.
There are many other and anecdotal reports of using brombuterol, zeranol, or zilpaterol which may easily be detected in hair but did not gain sufficient relevance so far. Before manipulation is attempted, it is often necessary to repel the fetus back into the uterus. Sedation, intravenous administration of clenbuterol , and instillation of warm fluids and lubricants into the uterus facilitate this process. As a general rule, if no progress has been made with 15 minutes of obstetric manipulation, an alternate approach should be considered, such as fetotomy, CVD, or cesarean section.
When manipulations are successful and the fetus is in the normal dorsosacral position for delivery, traction should be applied carefully, in conjunction with the mare's contractions. Foaling ropes should be looped above the fetlocks, with a half hitch placed below the joint.
Head ropes should only be used for positioning, not for traction. The incidence of retained fetal membranes and also uterine prolapse is higher following dystocia. To prevent the former, the membranes should be carefully tied up and the mare given a low dose of oxytocin e.
To minimize the risk for uterine prolapse, the uterus should be palpated per vagina to ensure there is no invagination of either of the uterine horns, which can progress to uterine prolapse if not corrected. Bronchodilators are indicated to relax airway smooth muscle and relieve airflow obstruction, but they should not be used alone because, with the exception of clenbuterol , they have no anti-inflammatory properties.
The three classes of drugs available as systemic bronchodilators are anticholinergics, beta 2 -agonists, and methylxanthines. Joseph, MO is a safer anticholinergic drug that resulted in a marked improvement in lung function within 2—5 minutes of administration 0. Joseph, MO is approved for the treatment of heaves in horses in the United States.
Injectable and oral formulations have been available in other countries for many years. Treatment should be titrated to effect starting with a low dose 0.
Clenbuterol therapy also enhances airway mucociliary clearance by increasing ciliary beat frequency. Administration of the beta-adrenergic drug isoproterenol 0. Methylxanthine and derivatives can be beneficial in horses with heaves; however, plasma levels necessary for bronchodilation vary widely between horses and the range between effective and toxic concentrations is narrow. Cookies are used by this site. For more information, visit the cookies page.
Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Abdulrahman A. Contraindications and precautions Do not administer to animals intended for food. Drug interactions Because clenbuterol is a beta-agonist, other adrenergic drugs will potentiate the action. Side Effects of Drugs Annual 32 A. A worldwide yearly survey of new data in adverse drug reactions Michael Schachter, in Side Effects of Drugs Annual , Drug adulteration Adulteration of heroin with clenbuterol is frequently reported [ A ].
Fenoterol Hydrobromide Abdulrahman A. Other Anabolic Agents The most common nonsteroidal anabolic agent is certainly clenbuterol and its detectability in hair is well documented [25—27].
Managing Dystocia in the Field Oliver D. Inflammatory diseases of the lower airway of athletic horses Laurent L. Couetil, in Equine Sports Medicine and Surgery Second Edition , Bronchodilators Bronchodilators are indicated to relax airway smooth muscle and relieve airflow obstruction, but they should not be used alone because, with the exception of clenbuterol , they have no anti-inflammatory properties.
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