Learn about its five major components with 3D Human Anatomy Atlas! lymph in your body than blood at any given moment; think of it as extra precautions that your blood sets up. The lymphatic system is comprised of 5 major components: 3. The Thymus. Lymphatic-system-thymus-lymphocytes-t-cells. It is made up of a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymph tissues, lymph capillaries The lymphatic system has three functions. The lymphatic system consists of the following (see Table 1 below): Organs that contain lymphoid tissue (eg, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus) it is picked up and removed by lymphatic vessels that pass through lymph.
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The spleen does many things as it filters and monitors our blood. As well as removing microbes, the spleen also destroys old or damaged red blood cells. It can also help in increasing blood volume quickly if a person loses a lot of blood.
The thymus is inside the ribcage, just behind the breastbone. It filters and monitors our blood content. It produces cells called T-lymphocytes which circulate around the body. These cells are important for cell mediated response to an immune challenge, such as may occur when we have an infection.
Much of our digestive and respiratory system is lined with lymphatic tissue. This lymphatic tissue plays a very important role in the defence of our body. Lymph nodes are filters. They are found at various points around the body, including the throat, armpits, chest, abdomen and groin.
Generally they are in chains or groups All are imbedded in fatty tissue and lie close to veins and arteries. Lymph nodes have a wide range of functions but are generally associated with body defence. Bacteria or their products picked up from the tissues by cells called macrophages, or those that flow into the lymph, are forced to percolate through the lymph nodes.
There, white blood cells called lymphocytes can attack and kill the bacteria. Viruses and cancer cells are also trapped and destroyed in the lymph nodes. More lymphocytes are produced when you have an infection. That is why your lymph nodes tend to swell when you have an infection.
Those related to malformation or destruction or damage to the lymphatic system or its nodes include:. The following content is displayed as Tabs. Once you have activated a link navigate to the end of the list to view its associated content. The activated link is defined as Active Tab.
Vaccines trick the body into building immunity against infectious diseases without causing the actual disease Fluid retention oedema occurs when fluid isn't removed from the body tissues, including the skin. Causes include the body's reaction to hot weather, a high salt intake, and the hormones associated The lymphatic manages fluid levels in the body, filters out bacteria and houses types of white blood cells Women who have undergone treatment of breast cancer are particularly susceptible to lymphoedema of the arm Surgically removing a diseased or damaged spleen is possible without causing any serious harm to the person Any conditions that cause a rapid breakdown of blood cells can place great strain on the spleen and make it enlarge The most common infections for people with lupus include those of the respiratory tract, skin and urinary system Lupus can be controlled with medications, so the majority of affected women are able to have children Most cases of Addison's disease are caused by an autoimmune response that attacks and damages the adrenal glands over time Myalgic encephalomyelitis, commonly known as chronic fatigue syndrome, can affect people of any age, including children Henoch-Schonlein purpura causes a purple spotted skin rash which lasts around one to four weeks, and is often marked by relapses In Australia, HIV is most commonly spread when having sex without a condom and when sharing needles and other injecting equipment Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura ITP is a rare autoimmune disorder in which a person?
Raynaud's phenomenon can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, so see your doctor if you experience it Reactive arthritis is a form of arthritis that occurs as a result of some bacterial infections Retroperitoneal fibrosis is the abnormal growth of tissue on and around abdominal structures, including blood vessels and ureters Early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is important in helping you manage the condition more effectively The most common symptom of scleroderma is a thickening and hardening of the skin, particularly of the hands and face Hyperthyroidism can be diagnosed with a simple blood test that measures thyroid hormone levels Bone marrow is the spongy tissue in the hollow centres of a person?
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Hospitals, surgery and procedures. Planning and coordinating healthcare. Pregnancy and birth services. Lymphatic system Share show more. Immune system Immune system - Lymphatic system Blood and blood vessels Blood and blood vessels - Blood and blood vessels explained. It maintains fluid levels in our body tissues by removing all fluids that leak out of our blood vessels. The lymphatic system is important for the optimal functioning of our general and specific immune responses.
The lymph nodes monitor the lymph flowing into them and produce cells and antibodies which protect our body from infection and disease. The spleen and thymus are lymphatic organs that monitor the blood and detect and respond to pathogens and malignant cells. In humans the thymus appears early in fetal development and continues to grow until puberty , after which it begins to shrink. The decline of the thymus is thought to be the reason T-cell production decreases with age.
The thymocytes then move to the medulla of the thymus, where further differentiation occurs. Positive and negative selection destroy a great number of thymocytes; only about 5 to 10 percent survive to exit the thymus. Those that survive leave the thymus through specialized passages called efferent outgoing lymphatics, which drain to the blood and secondary lymphoid organs. The thymus has no afferent incoming lymphatics, which supports the idea that the thymus is a T-cell factory rather than a rest stop for circulating lymphocytes.
In birds B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius. The process of B-cell maturation was elucidated in birds—hence B for bursa. In mammals the primary organ for B-lymphocyte development is the bone marrow, although the prenatal site of B-cell differentiation is the fetal liver.
Unlike the thymus, the bone marrow does not atrophy at puberty, and therefore there is no concomitant decrease in the production of B lymphocytes with age.
The secondary lymphoid organs serve two basic functions: Lymphatic capillaries form a network just inside the renal capsule and another, deeper network between and around the renal blood vessels. Few lymphatic capillaries appear in the actual renal substance, and those present are evidently associated with the connective tissue framework, while the….
The lymph nodes, or lymph glands, are small, encapsulated bean-shaped structures composed of lymphatic tissue. Thousands of lymph nodes are found throughout the body along the lymphatic routes, and they are especially prevalent in areas around the armpits axillary nodes , groin inguinal nodes , neck cervical nodes , and knees popliteal nodes.
The nodes contain lymphocytes, which enter from the bloodstream via specialized vessels called the high endothelial venules. T cells congregate in the inner cortex paracortex , and B cells are organized in germinal centres in the outer cortex.
Lymph, along with antigens, drains into the node through afferent incoming lymphatic vessels and percolates through the lymph node , where it comes in contact with and activates lymphocytes. Activated lymphocytes, carried in the lymph, exit the node through the efferent outgoing vessels and eventually enter the bloodstream, which distributes them throughout the body. The spleen is found in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach.
Although structurally similar to a lymph node, the spleen filters blood rather than lymph. One of its main functions is to bring blood into contact with lymphocytes.
The functional tissue of the spleen is made up of two types of cells: The splenic artery enters the red pulp through a web of small blood vessels, and blood-borne microorganisms are trapped in this loose collection of cells until they are gradually washed out through the splenic vein. The white pulp contains both B and T lymphocytes. T cells congregate around the tiny arterioles that enter the spleen, while B cells are located in regions called germinal centres, where the lymphocytes are exposed to antigens and induced to differentiate into antibody -secreting plasma cells.
Another group of important secondary lymphoid structures is the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. These tissues are associated with mucosal surfaces of almost any organ, but especially those of the digestive, genitourinary, and respiratory tracts, which are constantly exposed to a wide variety of potentially harmful microorganisms and therefore require their own system of antigen capture and presentation to lymphocytes. Other, less-organized regions of the gut also play a role as secondary lymphoid tissue.
The host of secondary lymphoid organs provides a system of redundancy for antigen sampling by the cells of the immune system. Removal of the spleen, selected lymph nodes, tonsils, or appendix does not generally result in an excessive increase in disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms. However, the importance of the primary lymphoid organs is clear. For example, two autoimmune diseases, DiGeorge syndrome and Nezelof disease, result in the failure of the thymus to develop and in the subsequent reduction in T-cell numbers, and removal of the bursa from chickens results in a decrease in B-cell counts.
The destruction of bone marrow also has devastating effects on the immune system , not only because of its role as the site of B-cell development but also because it is the source of the stem cells that are the precursors for lymphocyte differentiation. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.
You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.
Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Jan 17, See Article History. Primary lymphoid organs include the thymus , bone marrow , and fetal liver and, in birds, a structure called the bursa of Fabricius.
Stem cells destined to become B cells remain in the bone marrow as they mature, while prospective T cells migrate to the thymus to undergo further growth. Mature B and T cells exit the primary lymphoid organs and are transported via the bloodstream to the secondary lymphoid organs, where they become activated by contact with foreign materials, or antigens. Diseases of the lymphatic system.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. The deep lymphatic system originates around the conductive airways and arteries and converges into vessels that mostly follow the bronchi and arterial vessels into the mediastinum. In the more superficial parts of the dermis, minute lymph vessels that appear to terminate in blind sacs function as affluents of a superficial lymphatic net that in turn opens into vessels that become progressively larger in the deeper portions of the dermis.
In the form of heartworm, it may be fatal to dogs and other mammals. More About Lymphatic system 11 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References major reference In lymph study by Sabin In Florence Rena Sabin anatomy and physiology respiration adenoids In adenoids respiratory system In human respiratory system: Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves embryological development In prenatal development: Lymphatic vessels human kidney In renal system: Lymphatic network skin In human skin:
Components of the Immune System
Medical terminology for cancer: The Lymphatic System and Immune systems. in the upper left abdomen, which filters blood, disposes of worn-out red blood cells, and Different parts of the the spleen specialize in different kinds of immune cells. Lymph is formed when the interstitial fluid is collected through tiny lymph. The immune system is the body's natural defence system that helps fight infections. The immune system is made up of antibodies, white blood cells, and other. The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs that help rid the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which comprises 40 to