In June , the Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) released a set of principles on workforce development, diversity, and inclusion (WDDI) for the. The Bio/Diversity Project is a collaborative effort between WISE, the Arizona- Sonora Desert Museum and the Friends of Saguaro National Park aimed at. After negative reports about after-hours parties that have been deemed disrespectful toward women, and multiple reports about the lack of.
This is because the species most likely to disappear are those that buffer against infectious disease transmission, while surviving species tend to be the ones that increase disease transmission, such as that of West Nile Virus, Lyme disease and Hantavirus, according to a study done co-authored by Felicia Keesing, an ecologist at Bard College and Drew Harvell, associate director for Environment of the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future ACSF at Cornell University.
The growing demand and lack of drinkable water on the planet presents an additional challenge to the future of human health. Partly, the problem lies in the success of water suppliers to increase supplies and failure of groups promoting preservation of water resources.
Some of the health issues influenced by biodiversity include dietary health and nutrition security, infectious disease, medical science and medicinal resources, social and psychological health. Biodiversity provides critical support for drug discovery and the availability of medicinal resources. Biodiversity has been critical to advances throughout the field of bionics.
Evidence from market analysis and biodiversity science indicates that the decline in output from the pharmaceutical sector since the mids can be attributed to a move away from natural product exploration "bioprospecting" in favor of genomics and synthetic chemistry, indeed claims about the value of undiscovered pharmaceuticals may not provide enough incentive for companies in free markets to search for them because of the high cost of development;  meanwhile, natural products have a long history of supporting significant economic and health innovation.
Many industrial materials derive directly from biological sources. These include building materials, fibers, dyes, rubber and oil. Biodiversity is also important to the security of resources such as water, timber, paper, fiber and food. Biodiversity enriches leisure activities such as hiking , birdwatching or natural history study. Biodiversity inspires musicians , painters, sculptors, writers and other artists. Many cultures view themselves as an integral part of the natural world which requires them to respect other living organisms.
Popular activities such as gardening , fishkeeping and specimen collecting strongly depend on biodiversity. The number of species involved in such pursuits is in the tens of thousands, though the majority do not enter commerce. The relationships between the original natural areas of these often exotic animals and plants and commercial collectors, suppliers, breeders, propagators and those who promote their understanding and enjoyment are complex and poorly understood.
The general public responds well to exposure to rare and unusual organisms, reflecting their inherent value. Philosophically it could be argued that biodiversity has intrinsic aesthetic and spiritual value to mankind in and of itself. This idea can be used as a counterweight to the notion that tropical forests and other ecological realms are only worthy of conservation because of the services they provide.
Biodiversity supports many ecosystem services:. There is mounting evidence that biodiversity increases the stability of ecosystem functions through time Diverse communities are more productive because they contain key species that have a large influence on productivity and differences in functional traits among organisms increase total resource capture The impacts of diversity loss on ecological processes might be sufficiently large to rival the impacts of many other global drivers of environmental change Maintaining multiple ecosystem processes at multiple places and times requires higher levels of biodiversity than does a single process at a single place and time.
It plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere and water supply. Biodiversity is directly involved in water purification , recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils. Experiments with controlled environments have shown that humans cannot easily build ecosystems to support human needs;  for example insect pollination cannot be mimicked, though there have been attempts to create artificial pollinators using unmanned aerial vehicles.
According to Mora and colleagues, the total number of terrestrial species is estimated to be around 8. The authors note that these estimates are strongest for eukaryotic organisms and likely represent the lower bound of prokaryote diversity. Since the rate of extinction has increased, many extant species may become extinct before they are described.
No longer do we have to justify the existence of humid tropical forests on the feeble grounds that they might carry plants with drugs that cure human disease. Gaia theory forces us to see that they offer much more than this. Through their capacity to evapotranspirate vast volumes of water vapor, they serve to keep the planet cool by wearing a sunshade of white reflecting cloud.
Their replacement by cropland could precipitate a disaster that is global in scale. During the last century, decreases in biodiversity have been increasingly observed. The Living Planet Report claims that "the number of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish across the globe is, on average, about half the size it was 40 years ago".
Biodiversity took the biggest hit in Latin America , plummeting 83 percent. This is despite the fact that high-income countries use five times the ecological resources of low-income countries, which was explained as a result of process whereby wealthy nations are outsourcing resource depletion to poorer nations, which are suffering the greatest ecosystem losses.
A study published in PLOS One found that the biomass of insect life in Germany had declined by three-quarters in the last 25 years. Dave Goulson of Sussex University stated that their study suggested that humans "appear to be making vast tracts of land inhospitable to most forms of life, and are currently on course for ecological Armageddon. If we lose the insects then everything is going to collapse. In , many species were formally classified as rare or endangered or threatened ; moreover, scientists have estimated that millions more species are at risk which have not been formally recognized.
About 40 percent of the 40, species assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria are now listed as threatened with extinction —a total of 16, Jared Diamond describes an "Evil Quartet" of habitat destruction, overkill, introduced species and secondary extinctions.
Habitat destruction has played a key role in extinctions, especially in relation to tropical forest destruction. Habitat size and numbers of species are systematically related. Physically larger species and those living at lower latitudes or in forests or oceans are more sensitive to reduction in habitat area.
A study conducted by the National Science Foundation found that biodiversity and genetic diversity are codependent—that diversity among species requires diversity within a species and vice versa. Co-extinctions are a form of habitat destruction. Co-extinction occurs when the extinction or decline in one species accompanies similar processes in another, such as in plants and beetles. Barriers such as large rivers , seas , oceans , mountains and deserts encourage diversity by enabling independent evolution on either side of the barrier, via the process of allopatric speciation.
The term invasive species is applied to species that breach the natural barriers that would normally keep them constrained. Without barriers, such species occupy new territory, often supplanting native species by occupying their niches, or by using resources that would normally sustain native species.
The number of species invasions has been on the rise at least since the beginning of the s. Species are increasingly being moved by humans on purpose and accidentally. In some cases the invaders are causing drastic changes and damage to their new habitats e. Some evidence suggests that invasive species are competitive in their new habitats because they are subject to less pathogen disturbance. Invasive species seem to increase local i. Overall gamma diversity may be lowered because species are going extinct because of other causes,  but even some of the most insidious invaders e.
Dutch elm disease, emerald ash borer, chestnut blight in North America have not caused their host species to become extinct. Extirpation , population decline and homogenization of regional biodiversity are much more common. Human activities have frequently been the cause of invasive species circumventing their barriers,  by introducing them for food and other purposes.
Human activities therefore allow species to migrate to new areas and thus become invasive occurred on time scales much shorter than historically have been required for a species to extend its range.
Not all introduced species are invasive, nor all invasive species deliberately introduced. In cases such as the zebra mussel , invasion of US waterways was unintentional. In other cases, such as mongooses in Hawaii , the introduction is deliberate but ineffective nocturnal rats were not vulnerable to the diurnal mongoose. In other cases, such as oil palms in Indonesia and Malaysia, the introduction produces substantial economic benefits, but the benefits are accompanied by costly unintended consequences.
Finally, an introduced species may unintentionally injure a species that depends on the species it replaces. In Belgium , Prunus spinosa from Eastern Europe leafs much sooner than its West European counterparts, disrupting the feeding habits of the Thecla betulae butterfly which feeds on the leaves.
Introducing new species often leaves endemic and other local species unable to compete with the exotic species and unable to survive. The exotic organisms may be predators , parasites , or may simply outcompete indigenous species for nutrients, water and light. For example, the introduction of kudzu from Southeast Asia to Canada and the United States has threatened biodiversity in certain areas.
Endemic species can be threatened with extinction  through the process of genetic pollution , i. These phenomena can be especially detrimental to rare species that come into contact with more abundant ones. The abundant species can interbreed with the rare species, swamping its gene pool. This problem is not always apparent from morphological outward appearance observations alone.
Some degree of gene flow is normal adaptation and not all gene and genotype constellations can be preserved. However, hybridization with or without introgression may, nevertheless, threaten a rare species' existence. Overexploitation occurs when a resource is consumed at an unsustainable rate.
This occurs on land in the form of overhunting , excessive logging , poor soil conservation in agriculture and the illegal wildlife trade.
The overkill hypothesis , a pattern of large animal extinctions connected with human migration patterns, can be used explain why megafaunal extinctions can occur within a relatively short time period.
In agriculture and animal husbandry , the Green Revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield. Often hybridized breeds originated in developed countries and were further hybridized with local varieties in the developing world to create high yield strains resistant to local climate and diseases.
Local governments and industry have been pushing hybridization. Formerly huge gene pools of various wild and indigenous breeds have collapsed causing widespread genetic erosion and genetic pollution. This has resulted in loss of genetic diversity and biodiversity as a whole. Genetically modified organisms contain genetic material that is altered through genetic engineering. Genetically modified crops have become a common source for genetic pollution in not only wild varieties, but also in domesticated varieties derived from classical hybridization.
Genetic erosion and genetic pollution have the potential to destroy unique genotypes , threatening future access to food security. A decrease in genetic diversity weakens the ability of crops and livestock to be hybridized to resist disease and survive changes in climate. Global warming is also considered to be a major potential threat to global biodiversity in the future.
Climate change has seen many claims about potential to affect biodiversity but evidence supporting the statement is tenuous. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide certainly affects plant morphology  and is acidifying oceans,  and temperature affects species ranges,    phenology,  and weather,  but the major impacts that have been predicted are still just potential impacts. We have not documented major extinctions yet, even as climate change drastically alters the biology of many species.
In , an international collaborative study on four continents estimated that 10 percent of species would become extinct by because of global warming. Lee Hannah, a co-author of the paper and chief climate change biologist at the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation International.
The world's population numbered nearly 7. Ehrlich and Stuart Pimm have noted that human population growth and overconsumption are the main drivers of species extinction.
According to a study by the World Wildlife Fund , the global human population already exceeds planet's biocapacity — it would take the equivalent of 1. Rates of decline in biodiversity in this sixth mass extinction match or exceed rates of loss in the five previous mass extinction events in the fossil record.
Conservation biology matured in the midth century as ecologists , naturalists and other scientists began to research and address issues pertaining to global biodiversity declines. The conservation ethic advocates management of natural resources for the purpose of sustaining biodiversity in species , ecosystems , the evolutionary process and human culture and society.
Conservation biology is reforming around strategic plans to protect biodiversity. Removal of exotic species will allow the species that they have negatively impacted to recover their ecological niches. Exotic species that have become pests can be identified taxonomically e. As sustainable populations of the remaining native species in an area become assured, "missing" species that are candidates for reintroduction can be identified using databases such as the Encyclopedia of Life and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility.
Protected areas are meant for affording protection to wild animals and their habitat which also includes forest reserves and biosphere reserves. Some scientists have called on the global community to designate as protected areas 30 percent of the planet by , and 50 percent by , in order to mitigate biodiversity loss from anthropogenic causes.
National park and nature reserve is the area selected by governments or private organizations for special protection against damage or degradation with the objective of biodiversity and landscape conservation.
National parks are usually owned and managed by national or state governments. A limit is placed on the number of visitors permitted to enter certain fragile areas. Designated trails or roads are created.
The visitors are allowed to enter only for study, cultural and recreation purposes. Forestry operations, grazing of animals and hunting of animals are regulated. Exploitation of habitat or wildlife is banned. Wildlife sanctuaries aim only at conservation of species and have the following features:. The forests play a vital role in harbouring more than 45, floral and 81, faunal species of which floral and faunal species are endemic.
In reserved forests, rights to activities like hunting and grazing are sometimes given to communities living on the fringes of the forest, who sustain their livelihood partially or wholly from forest resources or products.
The unclassed forests covers 6. In zoological parks or zoos, live animals are kept for public recreation , education and conservation purposes. Modern zoos offer veterinary facilities, provide opportunities for threatened species to breed in captivity and usually build environments that simulate the native habitats of the animals in their care.
Zoos play a major role in creating awareness about the need to conserve nature. In botanical gardens , plants are grown and displayed primarily for scientific and educational purposes. They consist of a collection of living plants, grown outdoors or under glass in greenhouses and conservatories. In addition, a botanical garden may include a collection of dried plants or herbarium and such facilities as lecture rooms, laboratories, libraries, museums and experimental or research plantings.
Focusing on limited areas of higher potential biodiversity promises greater immediate return on investment than spreading resources evenly or focusing on areas of little diversity but greater interest in biodiversity. A second strategy focuses on areas that retain most of their original diversity, which typically require little or no restoration. These are typically non-urbanized, non-agricultural areas. Tropical areas often fit both criteria, given their natively high diversity and relative lack of development.
Global agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity , give "sovereign national rights over biological resources" not property. The agreements commit countries to "conserve biodiversity", "develop resources for sustainability" and "share the benefits" resulting from their use. Bioprospecting can become a type of biopiracy when such principles are not respected.
The Convention on Biodiversity implies informed consent between the source country and the collector, to establish which resource will be used and for what and to settle on a fair agreement on benefit sharing. Uniform approval for use of biodiversity as a legal standard has not been achieved, however. Taster and Enrichment Events. Student Life Campus Life. Young People Pre Information. Go to Faculties and Schools home. Medicine and Health Sciences Health Sciences. Centre for Interprofessional Practice.
Go to Business home. Funding Opportunities Sponsored Research. Planning and building Refuse and recycling Council Tax and council bills Benefits Births, deaths, marriages and civil partnerships Funerals and cemeteries Health, education and family Housing and home choices Visitors and Leisure My community.
Can't see what you're looking for? View more in the My Services section. View more in the My Business section. View more in the My Council section. West Lindsey District Council is an active partner in the development and promotion of the Lincolnshire Biological Action Plan - through its own actions and supporting other agencies and partners in developing this important area.
Last winter, BIO posted diversity goals for the industry to hit by the year , and last week, BIO sent a letter to remind members of those goals. It is no coincidence that areas of linguistic and ethnic diversity are also areas rich in biodiversity. Most of the world's languages are spoken by ind. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity is holding its 14th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in Egypt to thrash out the main ways to.