Learn how ethanol is becoming a solvent of choice when manufacturing high- quality Proliferating High Standards in Ethanol Extracts. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating anti-diabetic, cytotoxic and proliferative effects of extracts of Wall., exhibited higher anti-hyperglycemic activity in comparison to extracts in other solvents, while no used along with the standard drugs as an adjuvant therapy methanol, ethanol and water were used for extraction. Hot. anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of ethanol extracts from . Owing to its high yield in the wild and ease of artificial cultivation; it is sold as real The flow rate was mL min−1, and the injection volumes of standards and.
Extracts Ethanol Proliferating Standards in High
Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of extracts was assayed by the method of Wu et al. The results were expressed as percentage inhibition of DNA oxidation. Lipid peroxidation microsomal Lipid Peroxidation was induced and assayed in rat liver microsomes using the method of Chang et al.
The homogenate was centrifuged at g for 60 min. After incubation, the sample was immediately loaded in a 1. The gel was then photographed under UV light. Colo human colon cancer cell line , T47D human ductal breast epithelial tumor cell line and MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line were used for the MTT human cancer assay.
The cells were plated in 96 well plate at cell density per well. After 24 hours cells were replenished with fresh media and the extracts of the sample solution were added to the cells.
Cells were incubated with the extract for 24 hours. All the steps after MTT additions were performed in dark and 5-flourouracil was used as positive control. Absorbance was measured at nm. Preparation of extract Mix 2 g of sample extract with 50 ml of methanol for 72 hours at room temperature. The supernatant was filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure in a rotary vacuum evaporator Rotary Equitron. The residue was dissolved in 20 ml methanol and collected in corked glass test tubes.
An Omega SPTm column 0. A one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's test were used to establish the significance of differences among the mean values at the 0. The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results and Discussion 3. On pairing DPPH with protonating substance the radical gets scavenged and absorbance is reduced resulting in the discoloration Purple to yellow.
The degree of discoloration indicates the scavenging potential of the antioxidant compounds present in extract in terms of hydrogen donating ability.
The percentage inhibition of DPPH free radicles increased significantly with increase in concentration of the extract in a dose dependent manner Fig 1. Results obtained in this study were lower than those obtained by .
The water extract may either contain more non-phenolic compounds or possess phenolic compounds that contain a smaller number of active groups than other solvents used. However aqueous extracts of immature calamondin were shown to be more potent than both methanolic and ethanolic extracts . Total phenols Total phenols of N. So the extractions with methanol resulted in the highest amount of total extractable compounds than in the remaining solvents which is in agreement with the results of  Ao et al.
The results obtained were not in agreement to those with that of DPPH and it may be due to extraction of more potent polyphenols in ethanol which impart ethanolic extracts more antioxidant activity.
Higher TPC in methanol despite of lower antioxidant activity of methanolic solvents can also be attributed to extraction of polyphenolic compounds of lower or no antioxidant activity as vitexin or isovitexin in methanol  Inglett et al. Antioxidant activity of extracts is attributed to phenolic compounds present in the extract. Reducing power It has been reported that the reducing properties are generally associated with the presence of reductones, which have been shown to exert antioxidant action by breaking the free radical chain by donating a hydrogen atom .
The data reveals that the reducing power of extract increased in a dose dependent manner showing an increase in the reducing power with increase in concentration of the extract. Reducing power of sample were The results were contrary to those found by Boulekbache et al  in egg plant extracts where methanolic extracts were more potent than ethanolic solvents. This suggests presence of highly polar polyphenolic compounds in N.
Higher reducing power of the ethanolic extract might be due to the greater hydrogen donating capability of the solvent and extraction of potent antioxidants by ethanol as compared to other solvents used in the analysis. In biological systems, hydroxyl radical is an extremely reactive free radical. It has been implicated as major active oxygen centered radical formed from the reaction of various hydroperoxides with transition metal ions which is capable of damaging almost every molecule found in living systems causing lipid perioation and biological damage.
Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity In biological system, hydroxyl radical is an extremely reactive free radical. It has been implicated as major active oxygen centered radical formed from the reaction of various hydro peroxides with transition metal ions, which is capable of damaging almost every molecule found in living system causing lipid peroxidation and biological damage.
The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of N. The ability of extracts to quench hydroxyl radicals seems to be directly related to the prevention of propagation of the process of lipid peroxidation and they seem to be good scavengers of active oxygen species, thus reducing the rate of reaction.
The hydroxyl radicle scavenging capacity of N. In food deterioration and in oxidative modification of biological molecules, lipid peroxidation plays an important role.
Capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation by any substance is often used to assess its antioxidant activity. Lipid peroxidation auto-catalytic, free radical mediated destructive process , where wide variety of products are formed on decomposition including ketones, fatty acids, low molecular weight hydrocarbons, alkenols and alkanals, in particular malonaldehyde MDA when polyunsaturated fatty acids in bio-membranes undergo degradation to form lipid hydro peroxides .
The reduction of MDA production would indicate lipid peroxidation inhibition. The extract produced The beneficial effect of N. IC50 and Correlation analysis In order to compare the antioxidant potential of extracts IC50 values have been used and are calculated using linear regression model .
IC50 refers to the half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 is a measure of the effectiveness of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function. Thus higher the IC50 value of a sample lower is the antioxidant activity. This further confirms the superiority of pure ethanol as an extraction solvent in comparison to other solvents used in this study. Similar results were seen in Limnophila aromatica by Do et al.
A high level of correlation was seen between antioxidant activity and total phenol content. However Khled-khoudja et al. Phenolics are main antioxidant compounds that impart antioxidant activity to a sample extract . In this study the antioxidant activity of extracts is due to phenolics present in it as is indicated by high correlation coefficients between TPC and antioxidant tests carried.
Similar results were found by . Various compounds were identified through GC-MS which have already been reported to have strong antioxidant activity. Relative percentage of polyphenolic compounds present can be deduced from the chromatogram however the quantity of compounds in the extract is a function of solvent used e.
This suggests that the actual antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the sample can be greater than the crude extracts used in the study. Various other components present in the N. These compounds have prominent anticancerous and antioxidant activity .
Health benefits of such compounds are given in table 3. It is also used for other types of cancer, and the skin cream is used for other conditions as well 5- florouracil belongs to the class of chemotherapy drugs known as anti-metabolites. Dose-dependent inhibition against the proliferation of the human cervical epithelial adenocarcinoma HeLa cell line in case of dulse and kelp extracts has also been reported .
Methanol extracts of various kelps including L. Further studies on N. Conclusions The use of traditional medicine is widespread and plants still represent a large source of natural antioxidants that might serve as leads for the development of novel drugs. The results of this work have revealed that N. This suggests that N.
Further, the GC-MS analysis of the extract verified presence of various compounds that were responsible for strong flavor and anti-oxidant activity of the N. The potential of this extractas an antioxidant, particularly hydroxyl radical scavenging using model DNA and antiproliferative activity using human cancer cell lines may open ways on future in vivo studies on prevention and management of cancer.
These properties will help regulating carcinogenesis at the initiation as well as progressive stages. Due to its suitable flavor and high antioxidative activity, N. Native calf thymus DNA. Acknowledgement Authors are thankful to Department of Biotechnology, Govt. Enve and cons ; 9 3: Geranin, a hydrolysable tannin from NymphaeatetragonaGeorgi Nymphaeaceae. Myrecitin 3- rhamnosyl galactocide from Nymphaeamarliaceae. Phytochemistry ; 49 Acylated anthocyanin from leaves of the waterlily, Nymphaeamarliaceae.
Phytochemistry ; Preliminary photochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of HelichrysumLonglfolium DC.
BMC Complementary and alternative medicine ; Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Termination chebula. Biological and pharmaceutical bulletin ; Alcohol and mortality in middle aged men from eastern France. Epidemiol ; 9, British Journal of Nutrition ; 99 ES Inflammation and cardiovascular disease mechanisms. Amercian Journal of clinical Nutrition ; The effects of A.
The boiling water extract showed an Cell viability of RAW A Nitric oxide NO inhibition of different extracts from A. Pretreatment with the absolute ethanol extract of A.
The suppression of inflammatory-related genes increased with the increasing concentration of A. The results of cell viability of A cells after incubation in the presence of different extracts from A. The results at 24 h showed that A. The results at 48 h and 72 h showed similar trends with 24 h data Figures 3B and 3C. The absolute ethanol extract showed the most powerful effects of The expression of SOD-2 and caspase-3 increased with the increase of exposure time to the absolute ethanol extract Figure 3D.
In this study, we examined the effects of different extracts of A. The absolute ethanol extract showed the highest anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects in these experimental settings. A Cell viability of A cells after incubation in the presence of different extracts from A. C Cell viability of A cells after incubation in the presence of different extracts from A. D A cancer cells were plated in 6-well plates and then exposed to absolute ethanol extract AHE for the indicated times.
Increased anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract may be explained by the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in A. These compounds have reportedly shown various healthpromoting biological actions, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and anti-atherosclerotic functions .
It was unclear whether the A. This study clearly suggested that the suppressive activity of A. Caspases are crucial mediators of programmed cell death apoptosis , and caspase-3 is a frequently activated protease in mammalian cell apoptosis . Cytotoxic effects on lung carcinoma cell lines are partly explained by the expression of caspase The transcriptional level of caspase-3 was increased with longer exposure to A.
Additionally, this study showed that the transcriptional level of SOD-2 was greater with an increase in exposure time. The role of SOD in carcinogenesis has been widely studied but remains ambiguous and controversial .
A major intracellular form of the SOD enzyme is considered a tumor suppressor [9,14]. A previous report showed that increased manganese SOD expression suppresses the malignant phenotype of human melanoma cells . The authors report no conflicts of interest related to this study.
The author does not have any financial interest in the companies whose materials are included in the article. Anticancer potential of an ethanol extract of Asiasari radix against HCT human colon cancer cells in vitro. Oncol Lett ; 5: Effects of Asiasari radix on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the gingiva.
Mol Med Rep ; Improvement of C-reactive protein levels and body temperature of an elderly patient infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa on treatment with Mao-bushi-saishin-to. J Altern Complement Med ; 6: Asiasari radix inhibits immunoglobulin E production on experimental models in vitro and in vivo. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; Partially purified Asiasari radix inhibits melanogenesis through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in B16F10 cells.
Int J Mol Med ; Jiang Y, Wang MH. Nutr Res Pract ; 8: J Med Food Li L, Neaves WB. Normal stem cells and cancer stem cells: Cancer Res ; Li C, Wang MH. Cancer Biother Radiopharm ;
Antibacterial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties of Coccinia grandis fruits.
Antibacterial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties of Coccinia grandis fruits. RESULTS: Both cold and hot ethanol and acetone extracts of C. grandis fruits showed some Acetone extracts exhibited higher antibacterial activity. Both ethanol extracts showed antioxidant property when compared with standard Trolox. antioxidant, antimicrobial and proliferative properties of ethanol crude extract . The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts and the standard was evaluated on . In general, the ABTS radical scavenging activity of the extracts is higher than. province and extracted with 70% ethanol using maceration and sonication techniques. The antioxidant . acid standard curve for calculation of IC50 of propolis. extract. . to cancer cells higher than extract from maceration.