Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects children and teens and can continue into adulthood. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder of children. Children with ADHD may be hyperactive and unable control their impulses. ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A person with ADHD has differences in brain development and brain activity that affect attention, the ability to sit still, and self-control. ADHD can affect a child at school, at home, and in friendships. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders affecting children. An estimated percent of children and percent of adults have ADHD. ADHD is diagnosed as one of three types: inattentive type, hyperactive/impulsive type or combined.
Is ADHD? What
ADHD is a common disorder. In the UK, surveys of children between the ages of 5 and 15 years found that 3. Hyperkinetic Disorder is less common and prevalence estimates are around 1. It is likely, therefore, that about 0. When researchers are conducting studies, they typically use the same definitions of ADHD for both boys and girls, and usually find more boys than girls with ADHD a ratio of about 3 to 1.
The gender ratio for children attending ADHD clinics, however, is usually higher than in the research surveys, which raises the possibility that females with ADHD receive less recognition. Similarly, in adult life, the male-female ratio for ADHD appears to be approximately equal, which again suggests the possibility that the high gender ratios in childhood may be partly a result of under-identifying the problem in girls, or of a different presentation of symptoms in girls CG72 Full Version pages Although precise causes have not yet been identified, there is little question that heredity makes the largest contribution to the expression of the disorder in the population.
Studies indicate that multiple genes contribute to a susceptibility to ADHD. CG72 Full Version pages A range of factors may adversely affect brain development during perinatal life and early childhood. These include difficulties during pregnancy; fetal oxygen deprivation; maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and heroin use during pregnancy; premature delivery; very low birth weight, exposure to high lead levels; a deficiency of zinc; and postnatal injury to the prefrontal regions of the brain.
These may all lead to an increase in the risk of having ADHD. These risk factors, however, do not act alone, but may interact with the hereditary factors. For example, the risk of ADHD associated with maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy may be stronger in those children with a dopamine transporter DAT susceptibility gene.
Secondary ADHD may follow traumatic brain injury. ADHD has been associated with severe early psychosocial adversity, for instance, in children who have survived depriving institutional care.
The mechanisms are not known but may include a failure to acquire cognitive and emotional control. Disrupted and discordant relationships are more common in the families of young people with ADHD. Discordant family relationships, however, may be as much a consequence of living with a child with ADHD as a risk for the disorder itself. In established ADHD, discordant relationships with a harsh parenting style are a risk factor for developing oppositional and conduct problems.
Parents themselves may also have unrecognised and untreated ADHD, which may adversely affect their ability to manage a child with the disorder. Excessive television viewing, poor child management by parents, or social and environmental factors such as poverty or family chaos have also been suggested by some as possible causes of ADHD, but while these may aggravate symptoms, the evidence for such circumstances is not strong enough to conclude that they are primary causes of ADHD.
The influence of dietary factors in ADHD has attracted much public attention: But the evidence is not strong enough to indicate that these cause ADHD. Nevertheless, epidemiological research indicates a link between additives and preservatives in the diet and levels of hyperactivity amongst a small proportion of children with ADHD.
Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: The Lancet Psychiatry, 3 6 , Journal of Attention Disorders, 16 8 , Cadell, Junior, and W. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: Customize your search by specialty, zip code, last name, and more.
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ADHD can cause a range of problems that can vary from child to child. The following are common among all children with ADHD:. They often seem to be driven like a motor; as a result they can be demanding in class and even behave dangerously when outside.
They may seem thoughtless, selfish and rude, so they are often unpopular with other children their age. ADHD is more commonly diagnosed in boys than girls. This may be because boys with ADHD tend to be more hyperactive and disruptive.
Skip to main content. Predominantly inattentive type - problems of attention, distractibility, short-term memory and learning. Predominantly hyperactive type - impulsive, poorly self-monitored behaviour. Inattentiveness Easily distracted Flit from task to task Slow to complete school work and forget instructions.
Learn About Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological condition impacting attention and focus in adults and children diagnosed with one of three . Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD is a common childhood illness that can be treated. It is a health condition involving biologically active. ADHD affects over 6 million children & 8 million adults in the US. Too many are not diagnosed & go untreated. Learn about ADHD causes, symptoms.