We have evidence for marijuana as a treatment for pain, but “very little is of trials in human subjects, as it prepares a new drug application for the F.D.A. With marijuana, apparently, we're still waiting for this information. Recreational marijuana will be legal throughout the country, but rules will vary While the federally mandated minimum age for consumption is 18, some “We' re legalizing the industry, but criminalizing a lot of the aspects around the . All topics · All writers · Digital newspaper archive · Facebook · Twitter. Indeed, though marijuana smoke carries carcinogens and tar just as tobacco smoke Notably, most studies on the subject suggest that while there may be “ We're not going to wake up tomorrow to the big discovery that.
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I prefer to smoke cannabis when I am writing music, working on things for work, and doing other tasks, Like Steve Jobs says, it does make you more creative and relaxed I know it does effect people differently, though. Some tend to get sleepy or experience paranoia. I came across this article because I was trying to see if there was a way for me to feel motivated and creative without weed.
I am a musician, have been for the last 20 years. I started writing music at the same time I started smoking pot. My music was more of an experiment with sound and how sound can alter your state of consciousness or emotional state. It has always been my process to smoke some weed and then mess around with sound. I am a completely self taught musician, have never taken any lessons and feel I do not need to.
I find it very difficult to get into music when I am sober, which is a problem I am dealing with right now. I lost my connections and have just had a really hard time getting any weed. The last time I did I got ripped off and was not in the right environment to work on songs and I wasted it.
People can say what they want about smoking weed and doing psychedelics but it is pretty amazing how if I take acid and sit down in front of a synthesizer, how I can improvise an entire album of amazing psychedelic music off the top of my head. I usually never had the means to record it unfortunately but when I did and listened to it later, I still thought it sounded really good.
Of course what is good and what is not especially when it come to music more so than visual art is very subjective and will always be a matter of one's opinion. Anyway, when I try and play music while sober I just run through a bunch of typical scales and make boring piano stuff, it sounds good but is not near as good as the stuff I make when I am stoned. I thoughtlessly and effortlessly create very interesting, heavily layered and complex soundscapes and amaze anyone who is present to hear it.
Recording it all has always been the biggest issue. One time on acid, my synthesizer became the flight control deck of a spaceship and I used the sounds to navigate through the universe. Those explorations have not only made me a better musician but have also guided my spiritual believes and understanding of science.
I think music has spiritual properties and is like a drug itself, I believe that the right combination of rhythm and sound can unlock higher mind states, enlightenment and is the universal language of the soul and great divine.
Music has magical properties, so it makes sense that my best material comes from when I am in different states of mind. The whole reason I started writing music in the first place was to explore different states of consciousness through sound and drugs. My tripping days are over, can't do that around my girlfriend and her kids but I still like to smoke weed. It enhances everything, which can sometimes be bad, for example if I smoke and someone wants to lecture me about mundane shit, something tragic happens or I am in an awkward social situation.
Some things are major buzz kills. When I listen to music while stoned I enjoy it more, I can look at art for hours while stoned, movies are more entertaining, everything seems more entertaining and colorful.
I am calmer and generally more positive and collective, it keeps me from getting pissed off and frustrated. The big problem I have is when I can't smoke weed. Not only can I not get into things and even when I do I think to myself "This would be so much cooler if I was high right now" and it is true. Because of that, I have movies and albums on my computer that I will not check out until I can get high again and I have songs that are near completion that I will not finish until I get some weed.
So as long as I can't find any pot my songs are sitting there collecting dust and I spend my free time just trying to bide my time. I play video games because it keeps my mind off of it. If my music is all about getting high, than writing songs while sober goes against the entire philosophy which results in me only being productive while on something. It has become such a thing that when I have weed I want everyone to leave me alone and just want to play my keyboard the entire time, for I feel I am wasting it if I am hanging out with people.
I have become dependent on it for my creations. Lately I have not been creating near as much and it is starting to drive me crazy. Feeling like I am not living up to my fullest potential and am just wasting my time and talent all because it is illegal and so hard to find.
Does anyone else understand where I am coming from or has had to go through this? Mean while, my girlfriend thinks of it as a bad habit and kind of discourages me from writing music in the first place because it is a process in which I isolate myself from others for hours on end and she thinks of me as being a drug addict and my music as being a waste of time, because I am not famous and it doesn't pay the bills. I feel like my life is a waste if I don't create music and that I am onto something really big and might possibly create the next biggest thing that could actually have a huge impact on humanity if I continue to explore the infinite possibilities and avenues of song writing or at least come up with something people would want to pay money to listen to and go see performed.
It is really frustrating, right now she is gone and her kids are gone and I could totally work on my songs with no distractions but I am instead writing this wall of text on here because I don't have any weed. How can I feel as creative without it?
The only thing I have to drive me right now is my anger and frustration of feeling unaccomplished. Anyone else understand where I am coming from? Weed has given me incredible creative flow! It heightens my ability to socialize,transforming me sort if like the mask! The movie Jim carry starred in!
But really I like to harvest these effect because I have benefited from them! In summary, I am thankful for the many ways I am able to create my art, my music my collaboration with other artists Even if my work would be looked on as mediocre, in the spirit that life and flows through my blood, I can smile, feel a higher degree of creative accomplishment and a real sense that the process will continue to bring me new thoughts and accomplishments.
It depends on what you smoke. There is this particular variety called Cannabis Sativa, yes, that is the scientific name. This strain of cannabis is said to have euphoric effect and also increases your brain's capacity to think up new things.
What are the different ways to improve logical thinking or you can say out of the box thinking? You could try smoking sativa, many artists use it for inspiration. An outstanding and refreshing treatment of the important subject of how marijuana affects creativity; and more impotantly, creative accomplishment.
I appreciate the objectivity. It's too bad that we cannot be as objective about other controversial subjects in the social dialogue. As a musician with about 30 years of using weed, I can say that it is your individual soul and the reflection of the World around you that causes "art" and expression. I would say the big lie about pot is that it facilitates some magical change in the brain that makes you an artist.
You can certainly have great ideas without it and more importantly is you have a much better chance to follow through with your ideas sober than stoned. The younger generation should know the truth. Marijuana is a drug, perhaps a wonderful medicine, but it is not without a serious price to pay when the smoke clears. Everything SOUNDS more enjoyable when you're stoned, but if you are an artist trying to connect with people, how would it make sense that being detached makes you more in touch with reaching people?
Stoned promotes having maybe less inhibitors to try some things maybe, but thankfully I recorded most of my "brilliant high moments" and more times than not it was total crap when compared to just my unadulterated talent. I would rather people that are less talented to make a career in the arts not become pot heads because they think being a dope head is going to make them legit.
I need to take low doses in order for my creativity to expand. If I smoke more than once that day, laziness will kick in, and my creativity becomes lower than when I was sober, which can be a harsh setback.
Also, the dose as well as tuning in to the right mindset prior to toking is always necessary for best projected results. It's an interesting question. I'm probably a great guinea pig for research. I started smoking marijuana when I was 14, and I have been a daily smoker ever since. I'm now 59 so I have a long view of it. I have been trying to stop smoking for 10 years but have been unsuccessful. I have dramatically cut back consumption because it saps my energy.
I love it for the stimulation it gives me to write; I hate it for what it does to my appetite. Without mj I probably would have been a paranoid schizo as I experienced extreme child abuse as a child, so it's a great cure for our generation. However, at the end of my life, I enjoy a clear mind after all those years of mj. I have been friends with Mary Jane since early April of , she being the third psychoactive I've had the pleasure of knowing.
First substance of experience was uncle Al, that would be Alcohol 4 those who didn't know, then came my vitamin C, caffeine; My dearly departed, dearly beloved grandmother Esther got my coffee habit started the IHOP in Milwaukee when I was approx. Sorry for my inglish, im portuguese. In fact weed can be good but bad at the same time, but if brings hapiness, release someone hill from pain, and the most important thing, it make's the creativity flow.
Is from bad marketing and advertizements, on my opinian weed make people freendly and open to sugestions, maibe the world cure for war. Cannabis defiantly makes you more creative and there may be some cons, but there are way more pros. Its way better for you then anything else. So why not pick the healthier choice? Im a much happier person while high. It enhances your life style if anything. The people that dont like it either has never tried it or had a bad experience by getting way to high.
Cannabis can save the world!! I was avidly reading the huge post 5 comments before until he made that rookie mistake of bringing "god" into a serious discussion.
He almost had me. I'm all for it. Of course theres going to be some side effects, but so do prescription pills, ciggaretts, alcohol, ect. And yet those are all legal. In fact the side effects to all the legal drugs that are out there are much worse.
You dont here about people smoking weed and blacking out and getting belligerent like you do alcoho, or people getting sick without it like prescription pills. Bottom line, it is the safest alternative out there. It is so much more better than pain pills.
I don't get that nausea or headaches pulls did. I'm NOT stopping it either. And no hanfovers or bad side effects. It makes me Eat. Otherwise I would be extremely thin. I think what this article is missing is the consideration of the person smoking the stuff and what stuff in particular has been smoked. Each person is generally a certain way, take myself for instance, I've always been a creative person that enjoys to improvise to a little music making and I'm a rather chilled person. When I smoke sativa, it makes me more creative and songs just keep coming out.
However, when I smoke indica, it brings out the relaxed side of me a little too much especially if it's been a long day, so I tend to become a consumer of music rather than a producer, since I feel more lazy. But that's just me, I'm probably not the same as you therefore I won't respond to weed the same way.
So yes marijuana and hashish makes a lot of things possible It appears that all studies must be done with heavy indica strains, so as to continue reporting negative effects with cannabis. The truth, however, is that with many, in fact, most sativa dominant strains, the patients are focused and uplifted and get through tasks more efficiently.
They don't give up midway through. It's time to end the lying about marijuana. Thank you for this interesting discussion. I just wanted to add my perspective because as we have noted there are many different strains of Cannabis which opens the possibility for varying affects. I am a regular smoker and have been since high-school; i'm 40 now. I'm a chef, a horticulturalist, a philosophy major, a early-years teacher who is just about to join a course of study that will take me through psychology and law.
For me, the effect of marijuana changes. For when i first smoked in high school, i just laughed and laughed. We laughed so much that our cheeks and stomach would hurt. Then, still in early youth, i became paranoid. Paranoia whilst smoking, which i still did, lasted until my late 20s. In my late 20s, i also took a lot of other mind altering drugs. On one occasion, all in the one weekend: LSD, Ecstasy and 'shrooms. For me psychosis is intense emotional reacting to what is interpreted in the environment.
I remember everything about my psychosis but the medico's psychiatry and psychology don't believe me. Now, which medication, i don't know. Presently, i think Cannabis is a magic plant for it gives one what one needs at the time. One could say, "it targets the need". If it is needed for creativity it will give creativity. If it's needed for ceasing seizures, then it ceases seizures. And that is why i do not not believe we should cut this plant up, extract its bits and say "this is all we can find it does so this is the only way one can use this plant".
This plant has many uses, be creative. My creativity i would say is with words and music, and not necessarily putting those two together. My creativity is thinking. Someone mentioned Dionysian and Apollonian aspects to fuel creativity. He was said to be mad, but later to discover it was caused by syphilis; what was his madness for he was a genius? What is the link between, psychosis i. For my creativity links me to madness. When i'm mad, i dance and sing all with precision i have been told by "the best in the Western suburbs".
My thoughts if not of a musical affect are philosophical. Philosophical thinking to me is reading creatively or divergent thinking.
When intoxicated by Cannabis my thoughts are quit clear to me but not in my expression to others so i keep a visual diary. And, green-affected, i'm digressing; or according to psychiatry i'm becoming tangential.
I shall continue on this tangent for a while, for the brave: If we take a broad view to include many ways of thinking we must include chakras for example, as a scientific subject of knowledge. My expression-charkra, to my uninformed knowledge is my most blocked.
It is housed in the Thyroid, which is wrapped around the vocal chords. My thyroid had a lump on it since high school but when i went complaining of not being able to swallow food they saw it as the cause, found pre-cancerous cells and they cut out half my thyroid and the lump.
So half my expression has recently been removed. Blue is also associated with the throat charkra, and blue in my culture is associated with the male, and thus not really worn as much by me, a female, although i have some blue on now. And hence i am expressing, with any clarity? Cannabis and creativity is according to my experience linked. But paths will be right if they do not harm another. Defining harm would be one of the most difficult tasks, i'd love it: How can a plant with such magical power's be banned from adults?
If one believe's in God or God's one believe's in Spirit. Now, what spiritual system once removed from God is this country a product of: Christianity or even Church of England? If we look to celebrations it's Christ, so we follow spirit thus interpreted from Latin to English so the populous could read, if they could. So before this reading English was a spoken language, thus the dialects but still English is rule bound for clarity on paper, we miss the tone and body language on paper, that is why music is fundamental as a speech form.
Other spiritual healer's understand their medicine they have been perfecting their knowledge which is handed down sans paper for many a year. How many have interpreted their knowledge with their body sans paper? Cannabis is most definitely a wonderful catalyst; confirmed by research, my own experience, and that of thousands of others.
IMO as long as there is not a chronic see what I did there? X essay by Carl Sagan is a wonderful example of this. When am high on on any drug i feel like i can see real behind everithing idk if anyone else feels like that i can see the real life and how people truthlly is and what they say.
With the whole thing which seems to be developing within this particular area, all your points of view are very stimulating. Having said that, I beg your pardon, but I do not give credence to your whole suggestion, all be it radical none the less. It looks to me that your commentary are generally not completely rationalized and in fact you are yourself not really totally convinced of your point.
In any event I did enjoy examining it. My love affair with the Blessed Herb as it is fondly referred to in the Eastern Caribbean came along late in life. I can tell you that not only is the herb a source of creativity, it has a spiritual side that must be experienced to be believed or understood. My Rastifarian friends in St. Maarten and Dominica said God spoke to them and improved their lives after they smoked. I totally agree that there are elements of truth to what they believe. I can assure you of this -- it beats alcohol by a zillion miles.
I write a lot of music and I also smoke a lot of weed. What I seem to have found is that weed makes me forget about the time I'm spending on a tune. I can work for hours and hours if I like the tune Im working on but I dont see any difference in the quality compares to being sober. Infact I normally haer things that need changing that I missed while stoned.
I remember thinking without a doubt that the sound I could hear was the best thing I'd ever heard. Though It wasnt quite as good when I sobered up again I can still remember the sound auditory halucination and have been aiming to get the same tone I heard since. A creativity boost due to smoking pot has been always a side effect for me.
I often get "elightend" when smoking; I get to experience the hiper- priming phenomena as never before. Neverthelss, I don't do pot very often, as that would create a tolerance syndrome and thus kill it's potential. I seriously think that positive effects on creativity vary widely between people. I have friends who would never get creative but otherwise aloof and somewhat stupid.
Me, on the othwr hand, I've been always a very, very creative guy. So, I think a little dose of THC would do wonders not only for artists, but would also do much for some scientist out there. I think the type of weed your smoking plays a bigger role here. There is different types of strain when it comes to marijuana, and also the thc levels are different. I do graphic design and make some music so i have my days where smoking actually had helped me , creative wise. As your own work amply demonstrates, the general public is the best judge of nonsense.
I took advantage of a three-day weekend declared by my employers to escape to the Noosa of Thailand, Hua Hin. We were pleasantly surprised to see the vast number of shop-keepers, not only convenience stores, but also big posh shops, glued to the Red channel in that town, the preferred residence of HMK. Of course they're all pro-HMK as is my friend, along with everyone in his family's area , but they are Red. A useful addendum to this thoughtful post is Martin Smith's in-depth speech "The Muslim Rohingya' of Burma," which he delivered in at the Burma Centre Netherlands.
I like the Beehive as a piece of design. At least it's interesting and has a distinctive shape unlike buildings such as Te Papa. It truly is near close to impossible to find well-educated americans on this subject, in addition you come across as like you know which you're writing about! I discovered my creativity and my love for writing, after I tried marijuana in high school. I would smoke then write a poem, or write a short story.
This continued into college as I would smoke and do my homework. It only lasted a year and I got an important job where I met my husband to be, and we moved in together he didn't smoke pot, but he drank beer like it was going out of style.
In short, I quit pot, he quit drinking at least I thought he did, but between his affairs and drinking I was the last one to know. Then I got pregnant and instinctively knew I would be a single parent. I was a single Mom for 11 years, and on my son's 11th birthday was the day I met the man I should have married so long ago.
However, we've been together 13 years and married for 7 years. Before I met my husband, I went back to marijuana and to try my hand at writing, since I just got my first desktop computer.
I auditioned with my work to write for an actress, Vanessa Marcil. I would smoke, write my column and make my boss very happy. I started another project - an E Newsletter on aol about trivia. I had over subscribers and it was fun, but a lot of work. Now, I no longer just smoke marijuana for creativity, I smoke it for medicinal purposes and just got my mmj card.
I usually get Critical Kush, in the Indicus family.. I've got such an internal conflict going on about this - see, I'm a writing musician, creating is what I DO - and about two months ago I quit smoking weed because of money issues and other weed related issues. And I'm gonna be totally honest, in those same two months I've only written around four songs. That's around a third of my normal creative output. I'm not one for giving credit to coincidence, but at the same time there must be some link.
Maybe one little joint to find out wouldn't hurt To me it comes down to one thing, no one has the right to control another persons decision to try or use pot. End of discussion, opinions are just that your's and my opinions. In the end the decision is for each to make without having to be scrutinized or explain themselves. That is why are government has become so blotted with laws that are self serving.
They are not for the greater good, but for ones own purposes. Around two-thirds of those registered for pharmacy purchase are in employment. Eight out of 19 regions in the country have pharmacies selling cannabis. While local authorities have tolerated the sale of cannabis under certain conditions in these outlets for many years, the supply of the drug to the coffeeshops is not officially permitted.
This has created an illicit market in cannabis production and wholesale distribution. In October , the Dutch government declared its intention to permit an experiment on the legal supply of cannabis to coffeeshops to be carried out in up to ten medium to large-sized municipalities. The trial should examine impacts on public health, crime, public safety and nuisance, and the municipalities should be varied in size and location.
On 9 March , the minister of Justice and Security and the minister for Health, Welfare and Sport described the plans for this experiment in a letter to the Dutch parliament. An independent advisory committee, reporting by the end of May , will help to define such details as how the cannabis is cultivated, monitoring and enforcement systems, and the criteria to select municipalities.
After the summer break, the committee will nominate the municipalities for selection. The draft law, required to allow deviation from the drug control act, will be presented to the parliament before the summer break. The draft has already been sent for consultation to key stakeholders including the association of municipalities, the college of attorneys general, and the council for the judiciary. The law will be accompanied by an order in council which will set out the more detailed requirement of cannabis cultivation and sales.
In the Netherlands, an estimated Letter to parliament Dutch Questions to advisory committe Dutch. The law will take effect on 1 July The legislation, however, only permits home growing and personal possession. Commercial production, distribution and sale are not allowed.
The new law permits personal possession of up to 1 ounce Minor breaches and public consumption are civil offences, but chemical extraction e.
A new advisory commission will examine possible commercial models, road safety and education and prevention strategies, and report to the Governor by 15 December The main rationale for legalisation is to combat disparities in enforcement of drug laws towards ethnic minorities. In November , the US state of Maine voted to legalise the cultivation, production, sale, taxation and use of cannabis.
Personal use is now permitted, but a bill to implement the regulations for trade was vetoed on 3 November by the State Governor, Paul LePage. Three months after the vote for legalisation, the state government passed a law LD 88 to permit personal cultivation and use.
The same law delayed legalisation of commercial production, retail sales and taxation until February , to allow legislators to finalise administrative rules such as licensing.
Those administrative rules were drafted by the member Joint Select Committee on Marijuana Implementation, in a bill LD that was passed by both state Houses on 23 October This bill has now been vetoed. In his veto letter , the State Governor cited concerns about:. Most fundamentally though, he was concerned that the bill was in direct conflict with US federal law:. Until I clearly understand how the federal government intends to treat states that seek to legalize marijuana, I cannot in good conscience support any scheme in state law to implement expansion of legal marijuana in Maine.
If we are adopting a law that will legalize and establish a new industry and impose a new regulatory infrastructure that requires significant private and public investment, we need assurances that a change in policy or administration at the federal level will not nullify those investments. In this situation, the provisions of the law of January prevail, and purchase from a retail outlet should become legal from 1 February ; even if licensing details remain undefined.
Legislators may submit a new proposal in January As part of the legalisation in Washington State that took effect in July , the state legislature instructed the Washington State Institute of Public Policy WSIPP to publish periodic evaluations looking at factors in at least six named areas. These should inform a benefit-cost evaluation of the law. The report lists preliminary findings for:.
The analysis compares a the different counties within the State, noting per capita cannabis sales; and b Washington State with other similar states.
Sales data do not represent all legal cannabis supply; home growing is allowed in Washington State for authorised medical but not recreational use. However, the medical and non-medical markets were integrated in July , and now distinguishing the two is nearly impossible.
In schools, use has been stable or fallen slightly, and cannabis is viewed as more difficult to access. There was no evidence that the amount of legal cannabis sales in a county affected cannabis use among school students, though 8th-graders in districts with more sales per capita were significantly less likely to report smoking cigarettes. For adults, cannabis use has increased, whereas heavy alcohol use and cigarette use have remained stable or fallen. Those aged 21 and older living in counties with more sales per capita were significantly more likely to report current use last 30 days and heavy use on 20 or more of the past 30 days.
By contrast, those aged 18—20 living in counties with more sales were significantly less likely to report use of cannabis in the past 30 days, but the likelihood of heavy use was unaffected. The number of state-funded admissions for cannabis use in Washington has been falling since , and continues to do so.
However, for those who were not referred by criminal justice, cannabis use admissions only started to decline in There is no evidence that the legalisation caused this change, or that the amount of sales in a county affected the number of cannabis abuse treatment admissions.
Cannabis possession remains illegal for those under Nevertheless, misdemeanour cannabis possession convictions for this age group began to decline in , reaching approximately half the level they had been over the previous 10 years. There was no evidence of effects of retail sales rates on convictions. Report is available here: In Vermont, House Bill S. As the House preferred home growing and the state Senate preferred a system of commercial retail, this bill was a compromise; it established a Marijuana Regulatory Commission, which would take six months to elaborate a framework for possible retail sale.
The bill was approved by the state Senate in April and by the House in May. However, at the end of May the state governor vetoed the bill, sending it back for a rewrite as he considered that it lacked adequate safety measures. There was the possibility that it could be addressed in a special session in July, but this did not happen. In Delaware, House Bill proposed a model similar to that adopted in the state of Washington.
Its stated aims included promoting individual freedom, raising revenue, and allowing law enforcement to focus on violent and property crimes. To protect public health, it would regulate cannabis like alcohol licensed sales, age limits, product testing. It would allow possession of up to 1 oz 28 g of cannabis herb, and create a system of licensing for shops to sell it, but home growing would not be allowed.
It was put forward in March and approved by committee in May, but as the bill introduced new criminal penalties, it required a two-thirds vote in both houses of the General Assembly to pass.
This did not seem likely, and by the beginning of July, the bill was not advanced for a full vote. However, the legislature created a task force that would consider key concerns such as impaired driving and consumer safety, and this should report back by January for the next session of the General Assembly. Delaware reported a considerably lower rate, with For comparison, the range across the 50 states is 8.
On 19 July , sales of cannabis started at pharmacies in Uruguay. This is the final step of operationalising the law that legalised cannabis consumption and sale to overs for recreational use. The law permits three supply systems: Consumers must be registered, and should be Uruguayans or residents, so there can be no sales to tourists.
Subscribers to any one system are not permitted to use another. Since the law, home cultivation and social clubs became established quite quickly. Current registrations show nearly 7 home-growers and 63 clubs. To date, only 16 pharmacies out of approximately 1 in the country have agreed to stock recreational cannabis.
The cannabis will be sold in packets of 5 g, though 10 g packets may be introduced later, with clear warnings printed on the packaging. The price is fixed at USD 1. Identification and purchase history will be tracked by fingerprint scanners at registered pharmacies, enforcing the maximum purchase of 40 g per month. This is comparable to the highest national rates in the EU of 9.
The above registration numbers suggest there is a long way to go before supply meets demand. However, it is possible that this is deliberate in order not to over-produce. While the Cannabis Act proposes several regulations, it also leaves many aspects to be decided at the level of the provinces; this is also how Canada regulates alcohol.
Bill C re-defines the criminal offence of driving after consuming drugs or alcohol. Following the legalisation of recreational cannabis in the US state of Colorado at the end of , the state Senate mandated a report every two years on changes in cannabis use patterns, relevant scientific evidence and adverse health events.
The second such report was presented to the Colorado state bodies on 30 January Some trends cover legalisation of medical cannabis from , and its commercialisation from see report for details. This page report is comprehensive, yet easy to read. Section 1 on changing use patterns contains analyses of five surveys of different populations adults, adolescents etc.
Section 2 outlines the results of a review of the scientific literature on relevant topics such as cancer, cardiovascular effects, driving, mental health effects, reproductive effects and unintentional exposures in children.
In Canada, on 13 December the government-appointed Task Force on Cannabis Legalization and Regulation published its final report , which had been delivered to the ministers of justice, health and public safety on 30 November. It comprised nine members and was headed by Anne McLellan, a lawyer who has held several key ministerial posts. It was guided by a government discussion paper which set out nine public policy objectives, including protecting young people and keeping money from organised crime.
The Task Force established its own guiding principles: The recommendations aim for a public health approach while minimising unintended consequences. The Task Force prefers the scientific term cannabis to marijuana. The legal system is federal, although provinces and territories may have their own variations of some laws, for example the age limit to purchase alcohol may be 18 or Medical cannabis has been available since Over time the regulations have evolved from initially providing individual exemptions to enable patients to possess cannabis for their personal consumption for medical reasons, to a system of federal licensing that allows patients, with the support of their physicians, to obtain cannabis from one of 36 licensed producers, to cultivate their own cannabis or to designate someone to cultivate it on their behalf.
It may be distributed by mail or courier. Proposals for legal systems of cannabis cultivation and sale, for recreational use, had been rejected in California , Oregon and Ohio , and passed in Colorado and Washington State , Alaska and Oregon The accepted systems are private commercial models of supply, and all built in some way on pre-existing commercial models of cultivation and sale of cannabis for medical use.
Under these systems, although personal use was legalised quickly, it has usually taken 1 to 2 years for licensed shops to appear, due to the need for detailed implementing regulations and issuing of cultivation and sales licences. A law allowing home grow and consumption, but no sale, was passed in Washington DC in While voting for the next US president on 8 November , citizens also voted for commercial models of recreational cannabis supply in five states. For the other states, the results are as follows:.
These models of supply are similar to those in place in the four states that already permit recreational cannabis: But there are developments. First, in three of the states, the laws already establish a limit of personal possession of cannabis concentrates — resin or other products — while earlier laws as originally voted did not some states have added it later.
Secondly, they make provision for places to smoke or consume cannabis other than in private property. This is significant as otherwise tourists are not able to find a place to consume the drug, because of smoking bans in the shops and hotel rooms and a general ban on cannabis use in public.
Indeed, this conundrum is thought to be a factor behind the increased demand for edible cannabis products such as sweets, chocolate and drinks. Of the four earlier states, only Alaska had provision for licensed consumption areas, but one year later no licenses have yet been issued. Home Publications Topic overviews.
On this page Overview How is international cannabis policy developing? Overview Related links Cannabis legislation in Europe: How is international cannabis policy developing? Background While international laws oblige countries to impose criminal penalties for supply of drugs for non-medical purposes, some jurisdictions are creating exceptions. Cannabis policy models in Europe Personal possession While all EU Member States treat possession of cannabis for personal use as an offence, over one third do not allow prison as a penalty for minor offences see map below.
Coffeeshops In the Netherlands, coffeeshops are outlets for the sale and often on-site consumption of cannabis, which started to appear in the s.
Cannabis policy models outside Europe Overview Four basic models of legal cannabis production and supply are now operating. Key characteristics of the US legal context: State laws can be passed by initiative or referendum, rather than parliamentary debate. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines is permitted.
Further reading Marijuana legalization in Colorado: News updates on cannabis policy. Register for email updates Cannabis control and the right to privacy 3. Constitutional court press release South Africa In South Africa, on 18 September, 10 judges of the Constitutional Court ruled that it was not reasonable to penalise an adult who cultivates, or uses, or possesses cannabis for personal consumption in private.
Judgement Mexico In Mexico, on 31 October, the Supreme Court gave its fifth judgement since stating that penalising private cultivation, possession and use of cannabis and tetrahydrocannabinol was unconstitutional, against the principle of free development of the personality. Supreme Court press release All three courts emphasised that any private use of cannabis should not be in the presence of children.
Colorado publishes latest statistics on impact of cannabis legalisation The main findings are as follows: Crime The number of serious crimes of illegal production and sale of cannabis fell considerably between and , when they started to rise again. Illegal cultivation The number of plants seized in Colorado by the DEA has varied since , from 5 to 40 plants per year.
Diversion out of state The number and weight of cannabis products seized by the US postal service has increased every year since Hospitalisations Cannabis-related hospitalisations have increased steadily since Revenue Cannabis taxes make up about 1. Cultivation The new law permits cultivation and production by licensed private companies. Sales outlets Sales outlets will be regulated at provincial level. Product limits Herbal cannabis and cannabis oil can be sold, but not edible products containing cannabis, such as cookies and chocolate.
What do international drug control laws say? Do EU regulations apply? Are national responses similar? What do these products contain? Uruguay reports on regulated cannabis growing and sales 4. Is cannabis available everywhere? Dutch ministers outline 4-year trial to supply cannabis to coffeeshops The experiment is to be carried out in three phases: The results of the trial will be independently evaluated.
Vermont state to legalise recreational cannabis Maine governor vetoes retail law, citing Federal policy In his veto letter , the State Governor cited concerns about:
Dazed and confused: Canada cannabis legalization brings complex new laws
Two common cannabinoids have been the subject of most research for Earliest records of cannabis use as a medicine go back to China in. Cannabis or marijuana comes from the cannabis plant, which is a member of the nettle family. It comes in the form of dried leaves from the plant (known as grass. Likely produced by the marijuana plant as a self-defense against to give us the munchies by convincing our brains that we're starving.