Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants Antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (5, 6) are effective. Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective several synthetic cannabinoids all were demonstrated to be antioxidants by. Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. A. J. Hampson, M. Grimaldi, J. Axelrod, and D. Wink. PNAS July 7, 95 (14).
are antioxidants and neuroprotective (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol Cannabidiol
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2 , , European Journal of Neuroscience 11 8 , , European Journal of Neuroscience 13 8 , , Journal of Biological Chemistry 47 , , European journal of pharmacology 3 , , Current pharmaceutical design 17 3 , , Journal of Biological Chemistry 11 , , European Journal of Neuroscience 12 10 , , CBD has also been shown to have low affinity for both cannabinoid receptors Petitet et al.
Interestingly, CBD antagonizes CP 55, at a much lower concentration than it binds to the cannabinoid receptors, suggesting it may act at a prejunctional site which is not the cannabinoid receptors Pertwee et al.
CBD acts as an inverse agonist at the CB 2 receptors, which may explain some of its anti-inflammatory properties as inverse agonists at CB 2 receptors are able to inhibit the migration of immune cells Lunn et al. Finally, CBD interacts with various neurotransmitter systems including glutamate receptors [i.
The in vivo therapeutic potential of CBD in AD has not been widely documented, however, there are a number of studies that have reported the effect of CBD in pharmacological models of AD e.
These studies have described anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of CBD. GFAP is the best known marker of activated astrocytes and thought to be one of the main features of reactive gliosis Esposito et al. NO is a free radical and important in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions, which include accelerating protein nitration and increasing tau hyperphosphorylation Esposito et al.
Finally, the ability of CBD to attenuate reactive gliosis may result from CBD's ability to act as an inverse agonist at the cannabinoid receptor 2 CB 2 , which is thought to be involved in reactive gliosis Walter and Stella, ; Thomas et al. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of CBD were further investigated in a rat model of AD-related neuroinflammation.
CBD's ability to reduce reactive gliosis is further emphasized by the inhibition of SB. Finally, the study found that CBD was able to restore CA1 pyramidal neurons to a similar integrity to that of the control rats. CBD also down-regulated gliosis and repaired neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus Esposito et al. Three-month old mice were intraventricularly injected with 2. Although pharmacological models of AD are useful in producing AD-like symptoms, it is necessary to investigate the effects of CBD in transgenic mouse models as they result from gene mutations, which are seen in familial AD e.
Initially, two studies were conducted in our laboratories to elucidate the remedial and preventative potential of chronic CBD treatment in AD transgenic mice. CBD treatment was able to reverse cognitive deficits in object recognition memory and social recognition memory without influencing anxiety parameters Cheng et al.
Furthermore, cortical lipid oxidation levels were not altered by CBD treatment. However, the study did report a complex interaction between CBD treatment, AD genotype and cholesterol and phytosterol levels, suggesting they may be involved in the mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of CBD.
There was also a subtle impact of CBD on inflammatory markers of the brain Cheng et al. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the potential mechanisms further, thereby also considering other treatment designs i. Importantly, there is controversy about what the ratios of CBD: The first study conducted by Casarejos et al.
This mouse model was foremost a model of frontotemporal dementia, parkinsonism and lower motor neuron disease. The second study conducted by Aso et al. This study found that all treatments improved memory deficits in the two-object recognition task but only the CBD-THC combination prevented the learning deficit seen in the active avoidance task.
Finally, reduced astrogliosis, microgliosis and inflammatory related molecules were more pronounced after treatment with the CBD-THC combination than either phytocannabinoid individually Aso et al. This suggests that when CBD and THC are combined there may be either a summative effect or an interaction effect between the compounds, which potentiates their therapeutic-like effects Aso et al.
In this context, it should be mentioned, that although all treatments had cognition-improving characteristics in the object recognition task, THC alone had a detrimental effect on cognition in control mice, highlighting the need to be cautious when considering THC as a therapeutic. In a very recent follow-up study, Aso et al. Compared to the non-aged controls, vehicle-treated aged mice demonstrated impaired cognition in the two-object recognition task.
AD is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is becoming increasingly common in today's society. Unfortunately, there is still no effective treatment that stops or reverses the disease progression.
However, further dose-dependent investigations into transgenic mouse models of AD are necessary to understand the full potential and the long-term effects of CBD.
Importantly, many of the discussed studies were conducted in mice aged between 3 and 6 months, which is quite young considering AD diagnosis is usually relatively late in the disease progression. Furthermore, it is necessary to investigate the effects of CBD in tauopathy mouse models specific to AD and in female mouse models as all studies reviewed were conducted in male mice only.
Nevertheless, the studies discussed here provide promising preliminary data and the translation of this preclinical work into the clinical setting could be realized relatively quickly: CBD is readily available, appears to only have limited side effects Bergamaschi et al. TK and GW were both involved in the conceptualization, reference search, and writing of this mini review. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Cooper Limited Research Foundation. We thank Jerry Tanda for critical comments on the manuscript. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.
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Is Cannabidiol the Next Clinical Antioxidant?
The neuroprotection observed with cannabidiol and THC was unaffected of the oxidation potentials of cannabinoids and the antioxidant BHT. the antioxidant capacity of THC and CBD, generating a useful (IP, in kcal mol− 1) and the O-H bond dissociation (BDE, in kcal .. of Alzheimer's disease pathology by cannabinoids: Neuroprotection Huestis, M.A. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of the Plant Cannabinoids, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannibinol. #CBD & #THC are Neuroprotective #Antioxidants cialispanettet.top Anandamide Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective .