Here we review the current state of the science related to the adverse health . to health that can be expected to accumulate with long-term or heavy use. . Similarly, more research is needed to understand the potential effects of marijuana use 19 that met the inclusion criteria) reported complete freedom from seizures. But the use of medical marijuana to treat health problems is still the subject of ongoing debate. risk for abuse, which has stymied research into its potential benefits. . If you have more serious side effects, stop using medical marijuana up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. It goes by many different names, such as weed, pot, herb, and grass. marijuana smoke, it's unlikely you would fail a drug test, but it is possible. Others may have uncomfortable side effects from marijuana, such as shaking, leading Some varieties could cause dramatically different effects than the person might expect.
overview can expect A marijuana. side effects the complete potential when using you of
They affect brain areas that impact learning and memory, appetite, coordination, and pleasure so interfering with these receptors can have significant effects on your body. Some people feel nothing at all when they use marijuana. Some feel relaxed or high.
Others suddenly get anxious and paranoid; this happens especially when a person uses stronger marijuana, takes too much, or isn't used to taking it. We're still learning about how marijuana affects the brain and how long the effects will last—especially after someone stops using the drug. Regular marijuana use has also been linked to memory and relationship problems, poorer mental and physical health, lower salaries, and less career success. I felt like I was always in a rut. I was always feeling bad about myself, where I was standing in life.
Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same breathing and lung problems as people who smoke tobacco. For example, marijuana smokers can develop a daily cough or have a higher chance of getting a lung infection.
Like tobacco smoke, marijuana smoke has a toxic mix of gases and tiny particles that can harm the lungs. Although we're still learning if marijuana causes lung cancer, many people who smoke marijuana also smoke cigarettes, which do cause cancer. Also, smoking marijuana can make it harder to quit smoking cigarettes.
Some people think that vaping is a safer way to use marijuana because you're not inhaling smoke. But you're still inhaling various chemicals when using a vaporizer. Can marijuana lead to psychosis? People who have taken large doses or used marijuana with high THC content may experience brief psychosis.
Psychosis can affect the mind and make it hard for a person to understand what's real and what isn't. Some people have a gene that may increase the chance of long-lasting psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia a severe mental disorder that affects thoughts, feelings, and behavior , when they repeatedly use marijuana. While there are no reports of someone dying directly from marijuana use, it can still cause serious health problems. Some people have psychotic reactions that can lead to dangerous behaviors.
Others may have uncomfortable side effects from marijuana, such as shaking, leading them to seek care in an emergency room. The effects of marijuana usually last from 1 to 3 hours, but marijuana can stay in the body for days or even weeks after use. Organs in the body have fatty tissues that absorb the THC in marijuana. In general, standard urine tests can detect THC several days after use.
In people who use heavily, however, urine tests can sometimes detect THC for several weeks. Research suggests that teens usually try alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana before most other drugs.
But most people who use marijuana don't go on to use other drugs. Here are a few theories about why some do:. Some varieties could cause dramatically different effects than the person might expect.
K2 or Spice refers to plant materials that have been coated with chemicals similar to the chemicals found in marijuana.
These chemicals act on the same brain areas as THC. Is it safe to smoke marijuana if you are pregnant or breastfeeding? Doctors advise pregnant women not to use marijuana because it could harm the fetus. Studies suggest that children of mothers who used marijuana while pregnant may be more likely to have trouble with problem-solving skills, memory, and attention.
Mothers are also advised not to use marijuana while breastfeeding. Research suggests that moderate amounts of THC are excreted into breast milk. Research shows that people who have friends who use drugs are more likely to use drugs themselves. But we don't really know why this is the case. It could be that by hanging out with people who use drugs, you have more chances to try them.
Certainly, you can choose not to try drugs if offered, but this can be a challenge. Reports have indicated that smoked or ingested cannabis improves appetite and leads to weight gain and improved mood and quality of life among patients with AIDS. Marijuana has been used to relieve pain for centuries. Studies have shown that cannabinoids acting through central CB1 receptors, and possibly peripheral CB1 and CB2 receptors, 63 play important roles in modeling nociceptive responses in various models of pain.
These findings are consistent with reports that marijuana may be effective in ameliorating neuropathic pain, 64 , 65 even at very low levels of THC 1. Nabiximols Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals , an oromucosal spray that delivers a mix of THC and cannabidiol, appears to be an effective treatment for neuropathic pain, disturbed sleep, and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Sativex is available in the United Kingdom, Canada, and several other countries 70 , 71 and is currently being reviewed in phase 3 trials in the United States in order to gain approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Although such reports are promising, insufficient safety and efficacy data are available on the use of cannabis botanicals for the treatment of epilepsy. Research is needed on the ways in which government policies on marijuana affect public health outcomes.
Our understanding of the effects of policy on market forces is quite limited e. Historically, there has been an inverse correlation between marijuana use and the perception of its risks among adolescents Fig. Assuming that this inverse relationship is causal, would greater permissiveness in culture and social policy lead to an increase in the number of young people who are exposed to cannabis on a regular basis?
Among students in grade 12, the reported prevalence of regular marijuana smoking has been steadily increasing in recent years and may soon intersect the trend line for regular tobacco smoking Fig. We also need information about the effects of second-hand exposure to cannabis smoke and cannabinoids.
Second-hand exposure is an important public health issue in the context of tobacco smoking, but we do not have a clear understanding of the effects of second-hand exposure to marijuana smoking. Panel A shows the inverse correlation between the perception of the risk associated with marijuana use and actual use. Perceived risk corresponds to the percentage of teenagers who reported that the use of marijuana is dangerous. Panel B shows the percentage of students who reported daily use of tobacco cigarettes or marijuana in the previous 30 days.
Data for both graphs are from Johnston et al. Marijuana use has been associated with substantial adverse effects, some of which have been determined with a high level of confidence Table 2. Marijuana, like other drugs of abuse, can result in addiction. During intoxication, marijuana can interfere with cognitive function e. Repeated marijuana use during adolescence may result in long-lasting changes in brain function that can jeopardize educational, professional, and social achievements.
However, the effects of a drug legal or illegal on individual health are determined not only by its pharmacologic properties but also by its availability and social acceptability. In this respect, legal drugs alcohol and tobacco offer a sobering perspective, accounting for the greatest burden of disease associated with drugs 77 not because they are more dangerous than illegal drugs but because their legal status allows for more widespread exposure.
As policy shifts toward legalization of marijuana, it is reasonable and probably prudent to hypothesize that its use will increase and that, by extension, so will the number of persons for whom there will be negative health consequences.
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Open in a separate window. Glaucoma Early evidence of the benefits of marijuana in patients with glaucoma a disease associated with increased pressure in the eye may be consistent with its ability to effect a transient decrease in intraocular pressure, 53 , 54 but other, standard treatments are currently more effective.
Nausea Treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy was one of the first medical uses of THC and other cannabinoids. AIDS-associated anorexia and wasting syndrome Reports have indicated that smoked or ingested cannabis improves appetite and leads to weight gain and improved mood and quality of life among patients with AIDS. Chronic pain Marijuana has been used to relieve pain for centuries.
Multiple sclerosis Nabiximols Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals , an oromucosal spray that delivers a mix of THC and cannabidiol, appears to be an effective treatment for neuropathic pain, disturbed sleep, and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Students in Grade 12, — Panel A shows the inverse correlation between the perception of the risk associated with marijuana use and actual use.
Footnotes No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. National survey on drug use and health.
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Marijuana: Facts for Teens
In addition to its recreational use, marijuana has been used (1) to control Side effects associated with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) include sedation, Nevertheless, we can make some predictions of potential interactions based Additionally, pharmacodynamic interactions should be expected between. Find & Review Yet while many people are using marijuana, the FDA has only approved it for treatment of two rare and severe Research is critically needed, because we have to be able to advise patients and doctors on the safe and He shared some background on medical marijuana's uses and potential side effects. One would also expect that combining these two drugs increases the potential for Combining alcohol with cannabis could potentially exacerbate this effect. Intensified side effects: It is well known that using alcohol in.