As it turns out, CBD has a surprising effect on metabolism. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is what helps CBD interact with our body. A Korean study shows that monitoring CBD effects on immature fat cell and receptors the endocannabinoid system is made up of metabolic. Why is it important to understand how CBD is metabolized? drug has gone through the 'first-pass effect', in which the drug is absorbed by the digestive system.
effects on metabolism system cbd
CBD in particular has been shown to block an enzyme that destroys bone-building compounds in the body, reducing the risk of age-related bone diseases like osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. In both of those diseases, the body is no longer creating new bone and cartilage cells. CBD helps spur the process of new bone-cell formation, which is why it has been found to speed the healing of broken bones and, due to a stronger fracture callus, decrease the likelihood of re-fracturing the bone bones are 35—50 percent stronger than those of non-treated subjects.
Protects and Heals the Skin The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body. When applied topically as an infused lotion, serum, oil, or salve, the antioxidant a more powerful antioxidant than vitamins E and C  in CBD oil has many benefits and can repair damage from free radicals like UV rays and environmental pollutants.
Cannabinoid receptors can be found in the skin and seem to be connected to the regulation of oil production in the sebaceous glands.
In fact, historical documents show that cannabis preparations have been used for wound healing in both animals and people in a range of cultures spanning the globe and going back thousands of years. The use of concentrated cannabis and CBD oils to benefit and treat skin cancer is gaining popularity with a number of well-documented cases of people curing both melanoma and carcinoma-type skin cancers with the topical application of CBD and THC products.
Best known is the case of Rick Simpson, who cured his basal cell carcinoma with cannabis oil and now has a widely distributed line of products. Cannabis applied topically is not psychoactive. Cannabinoids have been proven to have an anti-inflammatory effect in numerous studies.
CBD engages with the endocannabinoid system in many organs throughout the body, helping to reduce inflammation systemically. The therapeutic potential is impressively wide-ranging, as inflammation is involved in a broad spectrum of diseases. The oral use of cannabis and CBD for anxiety appears in a Vedic text dated around BCE, and it is one of the most common uses of the plant across various cultures.
While THC can increase anxiety in some patients, it lowers it in others. However, CBD effects have been shown to consistently reduce anxiety when present in higher concentrations in the cannabis plant. On its own, CBD has been shown in a number of animal and human studies to lessen anxiety. The stress-reducing effect appears to be related to activity in both the limbic and paralimbic brain areas.
A research review assessed a number of international studies and concluded that CBD has been shown to reduce anxiety , and in particular social anxiety, in multiple studies and called for more clinical trials.
It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending cannabidiol or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis.
At the same time, educated and aware patients can be their own highly informed health consultants. For anxiety, CBD products with a ratio of High-CBD cannabinoids can be very effective in reducing chronic anxiety, treating temporary stress, and protecting the body from the physiological effects of both.
Varieties high in linalool, a terpene shared with lavender, are known to be effective for relieving anxiety. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range, before going to the next, until symptoms subside. The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat stress and anxiety with CBD.
For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a panic or anxiety attack, vaporizing or smoking work well. The medication lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products, including CBD oil, take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect and last six to eight hours.
Herbal vaporizers that use the whole plant are also an effective delivery method. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products.
The Cannabis Health Index CHI is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis in general, not just CBD oil effects and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data. Using this rubric and based on eleven studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of anxiety. Elixinol Organic High Potency CBD Capsules Elixinol offers a highly concentrated, high-potency, organic whole-hemp plant CBD oil , which is naturally extracted with carbon dioxide and free of all synthetics and chemicals.
Whole-hemp plant extracts contain synergistic compounds that are believed to enhance the effectiveness and benefits of CBD. Clinical depression is a serious mood disorder characterized by persistent sadness and loss of interest, sometimes leading to decreased appetite and energy and suicidal thoughts.
Commonly used pharmaceuticals for depression often target serotonin, a chemical messenger that is believed to act as a mood stabilizer. The neural network of the endocannabinoid system works similarly to the way that serotonin, dopamine, and other systems do, and, according to some research, cannabinoids have an effect on serotonin levels.
Whereas a low dose of THC increases serotonin, high doses cause a decrease that could worsen the condition. CBD products with a ratio of Specifically, products made with Valentine X or Electra 4 are more energizing, helping relieve depression.
When low energy is an issue, sativa or other stimulating strains can be helpful for improving energy and focus when THC can be tolerated. Varieties that are high in the terpene limonene are recommended for mood elevation.
Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range before going to the next, until symptoms subside. The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat depression. Vaporized or smoked cannabis is recommended for relief of immediate symptoms, or a boost in dosage, and it can also be useful for sleep issues. The Cannabis Health Index CHI is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis in general, not just CBD effects and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data.
Using this rubric and based on twenty-one studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of depression. Research in called for clinical trials to look into the effectiveness of cannabinoids for bipolar disorder manic depression. It also works on the GABA-glutamate system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
Its main role is restoring balance through inhibition when levels are too high and enhancement when they are too low. This is the most likely reason phytocannabinoids in general and CBD specifically are able to regulate depression and anxiety. The scientific inquiry into cannabis over the past several decades has confirmed that it is an effective and safe analgesic for many kinds of pain. Of all the reasons that people use CBD today, pain is the most common. The same can be said of cannabis in general.
In the United States, over seventy million people suffer from chronic pain, which is defined as experiencing over one hundred days per year of pain. Physicians differentiate between neuropathic usually chronic and nociceptive pains usually time-limited , and cannabis works on most neuropathic and many nociceptive types of pain.
A number of studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system is both centrally and peripherally involved in the processing of pain signals. Cannabinoids can be used along with opioid medications, and a number of studies have demonstrated that they can reduce the amount of opioids needed, lessen the buildup of tolerance, and reduce the severity of withdrawal.
It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending CBD oil or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis. Oral CBD products with a ratio of Most discussions of treating pain with CBD suggest that finding the right dosage is critical.
Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range by body weight until symptoms subside. If CBD-dominant products alone are not enough to treat a particular case, products with a higher ratio of THC are sometimes recommended to better manage pain. For day use, more stimulating, sativa varieties with higher concentrations of myrcene could be added to the formula. In general, for pain, and especially for evening and nighttime, indica strains are favored for their relaxing, sedative effect.
A person without experience with THC should use caution and titrate slowly up to higher doses. Research as well as patient feedback have indicated that, in general, a ratio of 4: THC is the most effective for both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Each individual is different, however—for some, a 1: Chemotypes high in beta-caryophyllene, myrcene, and linalool provide additional pain relief and increase the effectiveness of other cannabinoids for analgesia.
For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a flare-up of pain, vaporizing or smoking work well. The medication effect is immediate and lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect faster on an empty stomach and last six to eight hours. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops also take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products.
When pain is localized, topical products can be applied. Topicals affect the cells near application and through several layers of tissue but do not cross the blood-brain barrier and are, therefore, not psychoactive. The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body. Considering all of the studies together, which number over forty for various types of pain , CBD and cannabis are shown to have a rating of likely probable efficacy.
It is one of the best-substantiated medical uses of cannabinoids. Sativex, a cannabis plant—derived oromucosal spray containing equal proportions of THC and CBD, has been approved in a number of countries for use to treat specific types of pain. Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Sativex for treatment of central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer pain.
A study showed that CBD and CBC stimulated descending pain-blocking pathways in the nervous system and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. Sleep Disorders Insomnia, Sleep Apnea Cannabis and sleep have a complex relationship that is only beginning to be understood by science.
No information is available for tissue distribution of CBD or its metabolites in living humans and relevant animal studies are scarce. In rats, analysis of blood and brain A recent study compared plasma and brain levels of CBD after oral or intraperitoneal i. Oral administration offered six times higher brain peak CBD concentrations in rats than in mice 8. The effects of cosolvents and excipients on pharmacokinetics, involving cytochrome P CYP oxidases and P-glycoprotein efflux transporters, of lipophilic substances in general have been extensively investigated.
It must be noted that none of the above studies reported on the metabolic fate of CBD and no information is available on the human pharmacokinetics of the metabolites.
For an early mouse study indicating slow elimination of unidentified polar metabolites, see Karler et al. Subsequently, the use of sophisticated analytical techniques, especially GC-MS and, occasionally, reliance on synthetic standards for structure confirmation allowed the unequivocal identification of CB metabolites in humans see below. Being a good substrate of CYP mixed function oxidases, CBD undergoes extensive hydroxylation at multiple sites and further oxidations result in a complex metabolic pattern; altogether, some CBD metabolites have been identified from various organisms.
Following initial excretion studies, 32 , 58 about 40 oxygenated human Phase I metabolites have been characterized. The O -glucuronide conjugate of CBD was one of the most abundant urinary excretion products A further nonoxidized CB, probably a cyclized monophenol, was also detected at 1.
Figure 2c lists five side-chain monohydroxylated CBD metabolites, which were recently identified in a human liver preparation in vitro 60 ; all of them had been known from previous animal studies. The enzymatic processes responsible for the formation of the metabolites involve CYP oxidases, glucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, of which the CYP enzyme family has only been thoroughly studied.
Sulfation of CBD species may also occur but such conjugates remain unknown. Studies should thus use appropriate hydrolysis before Phase I metabolite quantification. Finally, it should be mentioned that interindividual differences in the expression and function of CYP enzymes may considerably affect the pharmacokinetics of CBD and its metabolites, and this could be relevant in the therapeutic action and any possible adverse effects of CBD-containing preparations.
One of the interesting metabolites of CBD is cannabielsoin Fig. The atypical quinone HU was found to inhibit mouse hepatic microsomal CYP enzymes, 78 CYP3A11 in particular, 79 as well as induced apoptosis of splenocytes isolated from mice. HU also has antiangiogenic properties and is a selective inhibitor of topoisomerase II. There have been only a few in vivo investigations with selected monooxygenated metabolites.
HU, which has been postulated to be a short-lived re active oxidative metabolite of CBD with CYP inhibitory properties, 79 , 80 has been extensively investigated in rodents due to its anticancer activity. There are no publications describing the biological activity of CBD metabolites in humans. The pharmacological actions of CBD on receptors, ion channels, cellular uptake processes, and enzymes have recently been reviewed 9—11 and are not reiterated here.
Since CBD is often administered concomitantly with other medicines, for example, as an adjunct in the therapy of certain diseases, drug—drug interactions should be taken into account.
What follows is a brief summary of such effects possibly having relevance in the clinical use of CBD. The contentious issue of CBD—THC interaction, however, is not discussed here for a brief summary, see the relevant section in a recent review The first pharmacological effect to be observed for CBD was, in fact, related to drug interaction.
It has repeatedly been demonstrated that CBD is not only a substrate but also an inhibitor of CYP enzymes, and thus, it could interfere with the metabolism of other xenobiotics, including THC and medicinal products. The presence and role of CBD metabolites in the observed drug interactions have not been reported. Recently, an 8-week trial studied the interaction of the anticonvulsant drug clobazam and CBD in 13 children with refractory epilepsy.
Furthermore, CBD has been shown to interact in vitro with P-glycoprotein efflux transporters involved in multidrug resistance, and thus, it may affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs. The identification of CBD metabolites has typically relied on mass spectral fragmentation patterns, and structural confirmation by synthesis was done only in a few cases; nevertheless, essentially all single-site modified CBD metabolites have been prepared.
The aim of most of these syntheses was merely to verify the chemical structure of a metabolite and not to provide material for bioassays. The few exceptional studies were discussed in the preceding paragraphs.
Analytical characterizations of and synthetic methodologies for all five metabolites hydroxylated at the pentyl side chain were described in the early s.
Chemical syntheses of metabolites oxidized at multiple sites have not been published. Several drugs used in therapy are metabolically converted into active metabolites and interindividual variations in the generation and pharmacokinetics of such active species may cause variability in the response to treatment by different individuals. Pharmacological studies with such metabolites are scarce yet suggest interesting biological activities, which are unrelated or not directly related to CB receptors.
Thus, intriguing questions arise:. Could any of the pharmacological effects observed for CBD be attributed to its metabolites? Are there any drug—drug interactions that affect the outcome of the therapeutic effects of other, non-CB medicines used concomitantly with CBD? Could any of the metabolites be used as templates for the development of novel therapeutic agents?
The pharmacological characterization of CBD metabolites both in vitro and in vivo is timely and necessary to shed light on the multifaceted, perplexing, or sometimes even contradictory biological properties observed for the parent CB.
The understanding of the clinical significance of these abundant metabolites in the proven therapeutic effects of CBD-containing preparations warrants further studies. Michael Evans-Brown is gratefully acknowledged for linguistic advice. Cite this article as: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Cannabis Cannabinoid Res v. Published online Mar 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Associated Data Supplementary Materials Supplemental data. Abstract Cannabidiol CBD , the main nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa , has shown a wide range of therapeutically promising pharmacological effects either as a sole drug or in combination with other drugs in adjunctive therapy.
Open in a separate window. Human Pharmacokinetics of CBD Upon Various Administration Routes Extensive studies in animals, including rodents and the dog, indicate that a large portion of the administered CBD is excreted intact or as its glucuronide.
Chemical structures of CBD-derived substances of biological interest. Studies in animals There have been only a few in vivo investigations with selected monooxygenated metabolites. Human studies There are no publications describing the biological activity of CBD metabolites in humans. Interaction with other drugs The pharmacological actions of CBD on receptors, ion channels, cellular uptake processes, and enzymes have recently been reviewed 9—11 and are not reiterated here.
Synthesis of CBD Metabolites The identification of CBD metabolites has typically relied on mass spectral fragmentation patterns, and structural confirmation by synthesis was done only in a few cases; nevertheless, essentially all single-site modified CBD metabolites have been prepared.
Summary Several drugs used in therapy are metabolically converted into active metabolites and interindividual variations in the generation and pharmacokinetics of such active species may cause variability in the response to treatment by different individuals. Thus, intriguing questions arise: Supplementary Material Supplemental data: Click here to view. Acknowledgment Michael Evans-Brown is gratefully acknowledged for linguistic advice. Author Disclosure Statement No competing financial interest.
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Can Cannabidiol (CBD) Help Support Weight Loss and Metabolism?
Chemical structures and numbering system for CBD and Δ9- THC type . may beneficially affect the uptake and metabolism of CBD or other. How CBD affects your metabolism The endocannabinoid system is pointed out in the article as a participant of the gastrointestinal function. How do we get the most effectiveness out of our CBD? the different methods of using CBD, and how each affects CBD bioavailability. will have to pass through our metabolic and digestive systems, which will filter out a.