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  • Alternative Medicine
  • Introduction
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    Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil , the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

    Distillation time as tool for improved antimalarial activity and differential oil composition of cumin seed oil. A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin Cuminum cyminum L. Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given Antitumor activity of Annona squamosa seed oil.

    Custard apple Annona squamosa Linn. A comparison of extraction processes, chemical composition analysis and antitumor activity of A. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were obtained as follows: Under these conditions, the yield of ASO was ASO inhibited the growth of H 22 tumor cells in mice with a maximum inhibitory rate of Furthermore, it was found that ASO exerted an antitumor effect via decreasing interleukin-6 IL-6 , janus kinase Jak and phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription p-Stat3 expression.

    ASO may be a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer. Hypolipidemic effect of seed oil of noni Morinda citrifolia. Morinda citrifolia, has been reported to posses different biological activities and almost all parts of this have been studied phytochemically. However there are few studies on the seeds of fruit. The objective of present study was investigated the effect to Noni Seed Oil NSO on serum lipid levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic induced mice.

    We find that administration of noni oil causes a reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both models. However hypolipidemic effect is higher when hyperlipidemia is presented. Performance characteristics of rubber seed oil biodiesel. The lubricity, ignition quality, oxidative stability, low temperature flow property and elastomeric compatibility of rubber seed oil biodiesel RSM were evaluated and compared with conventional petro-diesel. The results indicated that RSM and its blends with petro-diesel possessed outstanding lubricity manifested by sharp decrease in wear scar diameters in the high-frequency reciprocating rig HFRR testing.

    They also provided acceptable flammability and cold flow property,although the cetane numbers CN and cold filter plugging points CFPP of biodiesel blends slightly decreased with increasing contents of petro-diesel. However, RSM proved to be very susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures during prolonged oxidation durations, characterized by increased peroxide values, viscosity, acid values and isooctane insolubles.

    The oxidation stability of RSM could be significantly improved by antioxidants such as BD, a phenol antioxidant produced by Ciba corporation. Furthermore, RSM provided poor compatibility with some elastomeric rubbers such as polyacrylate, nitrile-butadiene and chloroprene, but was well compatible with the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene elastomer.

    The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp. Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history.

    Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools C. Using 14, single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C.

    We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis L. Comparison with Helianthus annuus sunflower seed oil. Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. The oil content of the C. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid The tocopherol content was The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to The present study showed that this non-conventional C.

    Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia. The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation.

    The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years , , and were Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers.

    Life cycle assessment LCA has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas GHG emission.

    For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory LCI of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds , information on the inputs were obtained.

    The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds.

    It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review. The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels.

    Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils vegetable oils are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition CI engines.

    This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils , several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils , and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid CNSL oil , ginger oil , eucalyptus oil , rice bran oil , Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil , sesame oil , clove stem oil , sardine oil , honge oil , polanga oil , mahua oil , rubber seed oil , cotton seed oil , neem oil , jatropha oil , egunsi melon oil , shea butter, linseed oil , Mohr oil , sea lemon oil , pumpkin oil , tobacco seed oil , jojoba oil , and mustard oil.

    Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented.

    The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included. To observe the effect of compound of gardenia oil and jujube seed oil learning and memory in ovariectomized rats and its mechanism.

    Animals were randomly divided into six groups: The ovariectomized rat models were established by resection of the lateral ovaries. The effect of compound of gardenia oil and jujube seed oil on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats was observed by means of Morris water maze. The compound of gardenia oil and jujube seed oil could shorten the incubation period of appearance in castration rats and increase the number passing through Yuan Ping table in ovariectomized rats.

    As the training time extended, the incubation period of appearance was gradually shortened. The compound of gardenia oil and jujube seed oil could increase NOS activity, and decrease AChE activity in brain of ovariectomized rats. The compound of jujube seed oil and gardenia oil could promote the learning and memory in ovariectomized rats. Near infrared reflectance spectra NIRS were collected from Arachis hypogaea seed samples and used in predictive models to rapidly identify varieties with high oleic acid.

    The method was developed for shelled peanut seeds with intact testa. Spectra were evaluated initially by principal component an Profiling and quantification of phenolic compounds in Camellia seed oils: Natural tea polyphenols in vegetable oil. In Asia, tea seed oils seed oils from Camellia oleifera, C. However, these oils differ in their fatty acid contents, and there is little known about their phenolic compounds. Here we analyzed the phenolic compounds of seed oils from three species gathered from 15 regions of China.

    Twenty-four phenolic compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including benzoic acids 6 , cinnamic acids 6 , a hydroxyphenylacetic acid, flavanols 4 , flavonols 3 , flavones 2 , and dihydroflavonoids 2. Some of these phenolic compounds had not previously been reported from C.

    The total concentrations in the studied samples ranged from Phenolic acids were the most abundant class, accounting for The concentration of catechins, typical of tea polyphenols, ranged between 2. Although the cultivation region affected the phenolic composition of the Camellia seed oils , in our hierarchical clustering analysis, the samples clustered according to species.

    The phenolic composition of the seed oils from C. We found that the phenolic categories in Camellia seed oils were similar to tea polyphenols, thereby identifying a source of liposoluble tea polyphenols and potentially accounting for some of the reported activities of these oils.

    In addition, this work provides basic data that allows distinction of various Camellia seed oils , as well as improvements to be made in their quality standards. Composition of vegetable oil from seeds of native halophytes. Certain plants halophytes grow well on high saline soils.

    One approach would be to grow halophytes on high saline soils and harvest their seeds. The oil in the seeds would be extracted Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal but not L-NAME-treated rats.

    Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO. Chemical composition and functional characterisation of commercial pumpkin seed oil. Pumpkin Cucurbita pepo L. These properties are related to its high content of carotenoids and liposoluble vitamins.

    The aromatic profile obtained from the commercial samples was directly related to the intensity of the roasting process of the crushed pumpkin seeds. The roasting temperature played a crucial role in the concentrations of volatile substances originating from Strecker degradation, lipid peroxidation and Maillard reaction. The findings suggest that high-temperature roasting leads to the production of an oil with intense aromatic characteristics, while mild conditions, generally employed to obtain an oil with professed therapeutic characteristics, lead to a product with minor characteristic pumpkin seed oil aroma.

    Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange Citrus sinensis seeds. Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds , is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties Citrus sinensis , as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity.

    The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids The antioxidant activity ranged from According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

    Wetting of silicone oil onto a cell- seeded substrate. Wetting behavior of solid substrates in three-phase systems containing two immiscible liquids are widely studied. There exist many three-phase systems in biological environments, such as droplet-based microfluidics or tamponade of silicone oil for eye surgery. However, few studies focus on wetting behavior of biological surfaces with cells. Here we investigate wetting of silicone oil onto cell- seeded PMMA sheet immersed in water.

    Using a simple parallel-plate cell, we show the effect of cell density, viscosity of silicone oil , morphology of silicone oil drops and interfacial tension on the wetting phenomenon.

    The dynamics of wetting is also observed by squeezing silicone oil drop using two parallel plates. Experimental results are explained based on disjoining pressure which is dependent on the interaction of biological surfaces and liquid used.

    These findings are useful for explaining emulsification of silicone oil in ophthalmological applications. Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm FIE. The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e. Pheres1 PHE1 , by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion.

    While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

    Effects of seed preparation and oil pressing on milkweed Asclepias spp. The effects of seed cooking and oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins were determined to identify potential value-added uses for the meal. Oil was extracted by scre Methyl esters biodiesel from Pachyrhizus erosus seed oil. The search for additional or alternative feedstocks is one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel.

    In this paper, the fuel properties of Pachyrhizus erosus commonly known as yam bean or Mexican potato or jicama seed oil methyl esters were investigated by methods prescribed in biodiesel Fatty acid composition of seed oil from Fremontodendron californicum. The fatty acid composition of the low water-use shrub Fremontodendron californicum was examined by high temperature capillary gas chromatography.

    The ground seeds were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction SFE to obtain the oil Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican A deodorizing substance in black cumin Nigella sativa L. The essential oil prepared from the seeds of this plant exhibited strong deodorizing activity against methyl mercaptan, which is a main factor in oral malodor.

    After purification with silica gel column chromatography, the active substance in black cumin seed oil was identified as thymoquinone. This monoterpenic quinone functions as the main deodorizing substance in this oil against methyl mercaptan. Metabolite analysis suggested that the deodorizing activity may be generated by the addition of a reactive quinone molecule to methyl mercaptan. In the present study, the menthane-type quinone and phenol derivatives exhibited deodorizing activities via this mechanism.

    Osage orange Maclura pomifera L seed oil poly- -a-hydroxy dibutylamine triglycerides: In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others Study for the degumming pretreatment of rubber seed oil. With the rapid development of the aviation industry, appearing of the aviation carbon tax and the increasingly serious environmental problems have forced the world to research the development of renewable bio-aviation fuel.

    Renewable biological aviation fuel contains phosphorus that could reduce the synthesis of noble metal catalysts such as Pd, Pt activity. In order to get low content of phosphorus in degummed oil of non-edible vegetable oil , in this paper, with rubber seed oil as raw material, making the experiment of single factor at the influence of temperature, stirring speed, adding amount of monoethanolamine MEA and water amount.

    The experimental results show that the added amount of MEA is 2. Effect of sunn hemp Crotalaria juncea L. The objectives were to 1 evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal AMR at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting WAP on May 14, and May 21, ] and 2 assess the impact of seeding rates 11, 28, and 45 kg ha -1 on weed biomass reduction.

    Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in In comparison to the sunn hemp -free control plot in , all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP.

    The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during and Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    Soybean [Glycine max L. Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci QTL that are co-localized with the traits evaluated.

    A population of F4: Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study.

    The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. Roasting pumpkin seeds and changes in the composition and oxidative stability of cold-pressed oils.

    Pumpkin seed oil is valuable oil for its distinctive taste and aroma, as well as supposed health- promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate how roasting pumpkin seeds influences the physicochemical properties of cold-pressed oils. The results of this study indicate that the seed -roasting and storage process have no effect on the fatty acid composition of pumpkin seed oils , but does affect phytosterols and tocopherols.

    The carotenoid content decreased after storage. The colour of the roasted oil was darker and changed significantly during storage. Pumpkin oil obtained from roasted seeds shows better physicochemical properties and oxidative stability than oil from unroasted seeds.

    Estimation of trace amounts of benzene in solvent-extracted vegetable oils and oil seed cakes. A new method is presented for the qualitative and quantitative estimation of trace amounts up to 0. The method involves the selection of two solvents; cyclohexanol, for thinning of viscous vegetable oil , and heptane, for azeotroping out trace benzene as a concentrate from the resulting mixture.

    Benzene is then estimated in the resulting azeotrope either by UV spectroscopy or by GC-MS subject to availability and cost effectiveness of the latter. This method is suitable for estimating benzene in vegetable oils and oil seed cakes.

    Chlorophyll and carbohydrate metabolism in developing silique and seed are prerequisite to seed oil content of Brassica napus L. Although the seed oil content in canola is a crucial quality determining trait, the regulatory mechanisms of its formation are not fully discovered.

    This study compared the silique and seed physiological characteristics including fresh and dry weight, seed oil content, chlorophyll content, and carbohydrate content in a high oil content line HOCL and a low oil content line LOCL of canola derived from a recombinant inbred line in , , and The aim of the investigation is to uncover the physiological regulation of silique and seed developmental events on seed oil content in canola. Furthermore, HOCL exhibited significantly higher fresh and dry matter at most developmental stages of siliques and seeds.

    Markedly higher silique chlorophyll content was observed in HOCL consistently over the three consecutive years, implying a higher potential of photosynthetic capacity in siliques of HOCL. As a consequence, HOCL exhibited significantly higher content of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and starch mainly at 20 to 45 DAA, a key stage of seed lipid deposition. Moreover, seed sugar content was usually higher than silique indicating the importance of sugar transportation from siliques to seeds as substrate for lipid biosynthesis.

    The much lower silique cellulose content in HOCL was beneficial for lipid synthesis rather than consuming excessive carbohydrate for cell wall. Superior physiological characteristics of siliques in HOCL showed advantage to produce more photosynthetic assimilates, which were highly correlated to seed oil contents. Protein composition of oil bodies from mature Brassica napus seeds. Seed oil bodies OBs are intracellular particles storing lipids as food or biofuel reserves in oleaginous plants.

    An exhaustive description of the protein composition of rapeseed OBs from two double-zero varieties was achieved by a combination of proteomic and genomic tools. Genomic analysis led to the identification of sequences coding for major seed oil body proteins, including 19 oleosins, 5 steroleosins and 9 caleosins.

    Most of these proteins were also identified through proteomic analysis and displayed a high level of sequence conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. Two rapeseed oleosin orthologs appeared acetylated on their N-terminal alanine residue and both caleosins and steroleosins displayed a low level of phosphorylation.

    Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time DT. Ten DT durations were tested in this study: Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield content, 2.

    The yield of individual oil constituents calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT increased and reached a maximum at or min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0—5 and at 5—7.

    This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the and at This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils.

    The review of patents reveals that Handling of Jatropha seed cake after extraction of oil is essential as it contains toxic materials which create environmental pollution. The goal of this work is complete utilisation of Jatropha seeds. For this purpose, Jatropha oil was used for producing biodiesel and the byproduct Jatropha seed cake was gasified to obtain producer gas. Both biodiesel and producer gas were used to generate electricity.

    To achieve this, a system comprising gasifier, briquetting machine, diesel engine and generator was developed. Biodiesel was produced successfully using the method patented for biodiesel production and briquettes of Jatropha seed cake were made using a vertical extruding machine.

    Producer gas was obtained by gasifying these briquettes in a downdraft gasifier. A diesel engine was then run in dual fuel mode with biodiesel and producer gas instead of only diesel. Electricity was generated by coupling it to a generator. The cost of producing kilowatthour of electricity with biodiesel and diesel in dual fuel mode with producer gas was found to be 0.

    Overall, the developed system could produce electricity successfully by completely uti- lising Jatropha seeds without leaving any seed cake to cause environmental pollution. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract.

    Isolation of genomic DNA from defatted oil seed residue of rapeseed Brassica napus. A simple protocol for obtaining pure, restrictable and amplifiable megabase genomic DNA from oil -free seed residue of Brassica napus, an important oil seed plant, has been developed.

    Oil from the dry seeds was completely recovered in an organic solvent and quantified gravimetrically followed by processing of the residual biomass defatted seed residue for genomic DNA isolation. The isolated DNA can be cut by a range of restriction enzymes. The method enables simultaneous isolation and recovery of lipids and genomic DNA from the same test sample, thus allowing two independent analyses from a single sample.

    Most of the amplified fragments were scored in the range of 2. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil.

    Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives. Lesquerella Lesquerella fendleri Gray Wats is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.

    The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil Ricinus communis L.

    Dehulling of cuphea seed for the production of crude oil with low chlorophyll content. MCFAs are used in soaps, detergents, cosmetics, lubricants, and food applications.

    Currently, cuphea is being grown to provide oil needed for research. The oil can be extracted effectively by screw pressing flaked whole seeds. Method for attaining fennel Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Mill. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity.

    Effects of specific organs on seed oil accumulation in Brassica napus L. Seed oil content is an important agricultural characteristic in rapeseed breeding. Genetic analysis shows that the mother plant and the embryo play critical roles in regulating seed oil accumulation.

    However, the overwhelming majority of previous studies have focused on oil synthesis in the developing seed of rapeseed. In this study, to elucidate the roles of reproductive organs on oil accumulation, silique, ovule, and embryo from three rapeseed lines with high oil content zy, 6F, and were cultured in vitro.

    The results suggest that zy silique wall, 6F seed coat, and embryo have positive impacts on the seed oil accumulation. In zy, our previous studies show that high photosynthetic activity of the silique wall contributes to seed oil accumulation Hua et al.

    Herein, by transcriptome sequencing and sucrose detection, we found that sugar transport in 6F seed coat might regulate the efficiency of oil synthesis by controlling sugar concentration in ovules. In embryos, high oil accumulation efficiency was partly induced by the elevated expression of fatty-acid biosynthesis-related genes.

    Our investigations show three organ-specific mechanisms regulating oil synthesis in rapeseed. This study provides new insights into the factors affecting seed oil accumulation in rapeseed and other oil crops.

    Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio- oils. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio- oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio- oil , with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage.

    Characterization of seed oils from fresh Bokbunja Rubus coreanus Miq. The free fatty acid FFA content between the two seed oils was significantly different 0. Iodine, conjugated diene, saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter were very similar in the oil samples, but the specific extinction coefficients at and nm of wine seed oil were higher than those of fresh seed oil.

    Grossamide, a representative lignanamide in hemp seed , has been reported to possess potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of action of grossamide are still unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the possible effects and underlying mechanisms of grossamide against lipopolysaccharide LPS -induced inflammatory response in BV2 microglia cells.

    BV2 microglia cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of grossamide before being stimulated with LPS to induce inflammation. Taken together, these data suggest that grossamide could be a potential therapeutic candidate for inhibiting neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    This study was carried out to appraise whether or not the exogenous application of a potential osmoprotectant, proline, could ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on maize seed and seed oil composition, as well as oil antioxidant activity. Water stress reduced the kernel sugar, oil , protein and moisture contents and most of the seed macro- and micro-elements analyzed in both maize cultivars but it increased the contents of seed fiber and ash. However, no variation was observed in oil stearic and palmitic acids content due to water stress.

    However, oil phenolic and carotenoid content as well as 1,1-diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl DPPH free radical scavenging activity decreased. Foliar-applied proline significantly increased the content of seed sugar, oil , protein, moisture, fiber and ash in both maize cultivars under well irrigated and water deficit conditions.

    Furthermore, exogenous application of proline increased the oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. The concentrations of antioxidant compounds namely phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and tocopherols estimated in the seed oil increased due to foliar-applied proline under water deficit conditions that was positively correlated with the enhanced oil DPPH free radical scavenging activity.

    Moreover, the increase in the contents of these antioxidant compounds and oil antioxidant activity due to the foliar application of proline was noted to be more pronounced under water deficit conditions.

    The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase PMI selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids.

    Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class.

    Data obtained for the oils ' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours.

    Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour.

    Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut Cocos nucifera and melon Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques.

    The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature 30 degrees C liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values AV as 2. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield.

    The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV.

    They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as. The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder OAB.

    Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. Pumpkin seed oil from C.

    The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsonii seed.

    Using the yield of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil as the index, optimized supercritical CO2 extraction parameter by orthogonal experiment methodology and analysed the compounds of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil by GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsoniit seed were determined: The average extraction rate of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil was 1. The main components were fatty acids.

    Comparing with the petroleum ether extraction, the supercritical CO2 extraction has higher extraction rate, shorter extraction time, more clarity oil. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil have differences.

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean Glycine max targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil -related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. Overexpression of GmZF in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation.

    The ZF haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean Glycine soja subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean.

    Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high- oil parents. Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America.

    Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max L. Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci QTL or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration.

    In a population of F 3: Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of F 3: In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high- oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

    Rosa acicularis seed oil was extracted from Rosa acicularis seeds by the ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic method using cellulase and protease. Based on a single experiment, Plackett-Burman design was applied to ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of wild rose seed oil. The effects of enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature and initial pH on total extraction rate of wild rose seed oil was studied by using Box-Behnken optimize methodology. Chemical characteristics of a sample of Rosa acicularis seeds and Rosa acicularis seed oil were characterized in this work.

    The Rosa acicularis seed oil was rich in linoleic acid The major fatty acids in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol in Rosa acicularis oil were linoleic acid This work could be useful for developing applications for Rosa acicularis seed oil.

    Hepatoprotective and immunological functions of Nigella sativa seed oil against hypervitaminosis A in adult male rats. The toxic effects of excess vitamin A VA intake deserve increased attention. Nigella sativa NS seed possesses physiological and pharmacological actions and protects against toxic agents. This work investigated the availability of NS seed oil as a protective agent against the effects of hypervitaminosis A HVA on liver function and immunity. Fifty adult albino rats were used and divided into five groups: Liver function, immunoglobulin IgG and IgM levels, and lysosome activity were measured in serum.

    HVA rats revealed marked elevations in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. This is the first study to demonstrate that NS seed oil possesses significant hepatoprotective activity against HVA.

    These findings may be considered the initial steps of the physiological and humoral immune responses for NS seed oil against HVA, but further studies examining longer periods are needed prior to recommending the use of NS seed oil as an alternative medicine for hepatic and immune diseases. Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils. A comparative study of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds , both of Moraceae family, was carried out to establish their chemical compositions and evaluate their mineral element content in order to investigate the possibility of using them for human and or animal consumption and also to examine if there is a relationship between the properties of these seeds.

    Both seeds have high carbohydrate content and could act as source of energy for animals if included in their diets. The oil contents of the seeds are The oils are consistently liquid at room temperature. The results of the physicochemical properties of the two seeds are comparable to those of conventional oil seeds such as groundnut and palm kernel oils and could be useful for nutritional and industrial purposes.

    The seeds were found to be good sources of mineral elements. The result revealed potassium to be the prevalent mineral elements which are They also contain reasonable quantity of iron, in particular A. Identification and characterization of large DNA deletions affecting oil quality traits in soybean seeds through transcriptome sequencing analysis. Understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying variation in seed composition and contents among different genotypes is important for soybean oil quality improvement.

    We designed a bioinformatics approach to compare seed transcriptomes of 9 soybean genotypes varying in oil composition Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils. Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health.

    The aim of this work was to compare the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate Punicagranatum , sweet cherry Prunusavium and pumpkin Cucurbita maxima seed oils obtained by solvent extraction.

    High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils , while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids MUFAs along to eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids.

    These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion.

    Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields.

    Cytotoxic activity of kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus L. To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus L. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus L. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope.

    Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. Using the candidate gene approach for detecting genes underlying seed oil concentration and yield in soybean. Increasing the oil concentration in soybean seeds has been given more attention in recent years because of demand for both edible oil and biodiesel production. Oil concentration in soybean is a complex quantitative trait regulated by many genes as well as environmental conditions.

    To identify genes governing seed oil concentration in soybean, 16 putative candidate genes of three important gene families GPAT: The RIL population was used to study the effects of these mutations on seed oil concentration and other important agronomic and seed composition traits, including seed yield and protein concentration across three field locations in Ontario, Canada, in and The genes identified in this study had minor effects on either seed yield or oil concentration, which was in agreement with the quantitative nature of the traits.

    However, the novel gene-specific markers designed in the present study can be used in soybean breeding for marker-assisted selection aimed at increasing seed yield and oil. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa accessions.

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa L. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. Increasing the yield of oilseed crops is an important objective for biotechnologists. A number of individual genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism have previously been reported to enhance the oil content of seeds when their expression is altered.

    However, it has yet to be established whether specific combinations of these genes can be used to achieve an additive effect and whether this leads to enhanced yield. Analysis of total seed yield per plant suggests that, despite a reduction in seed number, the total yield of oil is also increased.

    Nutritional quality and essential oil compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli Benn. Oil was extracted from the seed using standard methods while the fatty acids of the oil , chemical and anti-nutritional properties of defatted seed flour were determined. Total fat yield of the seed flour was Defatted seed flour had higher crude fibre Major mineral contents were potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium. The tissue contain appreciable amount of vitamin C 8.

    The seed oil had higher acid and saponification values and low iodine value. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid. In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman Samanea saman are reported. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. Dill Anethum graveolens L. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions.

    The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. Hydroprocessing of rubber seed oil to renewable fuels. Compared to the results obtained when using Mo Al2O3-SiO2, hydroprocessing of RSO resulted in a higher conversion and much higher yield of the light fraction BP Analysis of components and study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in apple seeds.

    In order to improve the comprehensive utilization of major by-products in apple-juice processing, the components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in two species apple seeds , Fuji and New Red Star, were investigated.

    The Soxhlet extracted oil content of apple seeds raged from The protein, fiber and ash contents were found to be Conversely, high ratio of surfactants exerted a positive effect on the reduction of particle size.

    In the case of homogenizing condition, the particle size of BCL-NEs decreased with an increase in homogenization cycle at 20, psi. But there was no significant difference between 8 and 12 cycles in terms of the particle size. Considering the merits of smaller particle size and less surfactants in oral drug delivery, the formulation was finally decided as 40 mg of BCL, 1, mg of hemp oil, 50 mg of PM, and 50 mg of sodium oleate emulsified with 20 mL of water.

    The particle size judged from the scale bar nm accorded well with the hydrodynamic size measured based on dynamic light scattering.

    BCL-NEs exhibited exceedingly slow drug release in water, 0. The release feature rendered BCL able to be transported via the vehicle of NEs rather than the free form.

    Negligible drug release for NEs has also been investigated by other groups. Release profiles of BCL from nanoemulsions with the time in water, 0. The pharmacokinetic profiles of BCL following oral administration of various formulations are shown in Figure 5 , and the main pharmacokinetic parameters are listed in Table 2.

    The formulation of suspensions brought about poor absorption of BCL both in the rate and the extent. The maximum plasma concentration C max and area under the plasma concentration—time curve AUC 0— t were just 1.

    Compared with the formulation of BCL suspensions, the conventional emulsions, to a certain extent, promoted the oral absorption of BCL, resulting in an apparent improvement in the blood drug concentration. The finding suggests that lipid-based formulation can enhance the oral bioavailability of BCL. The C max and AUC 0— t were separately up to These results indicate that there are differences in the absorption rate of BCL as formulated in different modalities.

    NEs are nanoscale colloidal particles, which represent one of the most advanced nanoparticle systems for oral drug delivery. High surface area can increase the absorption rate and reduce the absorption variability, thus enhancing the bioavailability of the drug.

    Furthermore, they can protect the payload from degradation and metabolism due to encapsulation in the inner oil phase, 21 which is similar to the micellar system. In comparison with the self-microemulsifying drug delivery system, 1 our developed NEs contain less surfactants and cosurfactants with the assistance of HPH upon preparation. The novel NEs with hemp oil as vehicle exhibit a high oral delivery efficacy, which are more suitable for oral delivery of BCL.

    The permeability of a drug can be assessed by either Caco-2 cell monolayer model or in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion. It seems that BCL has higher permeability in the lower section of the small intestine. As encapsulated into NEs, the P eff of BCL in the main absorption intestinal parts significantly increased, especially in the ileum.

    Relatively, the ileum possesses larger absorption area and transport activity. We assumed that enlarged surface area and particle-associated membrane mobile transport should be responsible for the improved permeability.

    In the first time point 0. This may be connected with the high concentration of BCL surrounding the cells due to complete exposure. There was considerable NE-associated fluorescence distributing within the cytoplasm, even internalizing into the nucleus. Permeability enhancement via NEs has been investigated in other tested drug. For the application of NEs, a great concern is the safety of formulation.

    The toxicity of NEs generally comes from the use of large surfactants and cosurfactants. In our developed NE system, PM and sodium oleate are the preferred surfactants. They are both low-toxic and in vivo degradable, thus not inducing apparent cytotoxicity. Emulsions represent one of the welcome dosage forms that patients would like to take. In this article, a novel NE formulation based on hemp oil and less surfactant was developed for oral delivery of BCL.

    Improved oral absorption of BCL could be attributed to betterment in transcellular transport because of encapsulation into NEs. In addition, our developed NEs were perfectly biocompatible, thanks to the involvement of less surfactants. This study provides valuable information to design innovative NEs to more efficiently deliver poorly absorbed drugs via the oral route. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Int J Nanomedicine v. Published online Apr Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

    This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https: By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

    This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Baicalein BCL possesses high pharmacological activities but low solubility and stability in the intestinal tract.

    Introduction Baicalein BCL , a flavonoid rich in the root of Scutellaria baicalensis , has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, antioxidation, antiallergy, antivirus, and anti-inflammatory activities. Open in a separate window. Intestinal permeability study To evaluate the intestinal permeability of BCL-NEs, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion was carried out following the reported procedure.

    The effective permeability coefficient P eff was calculated according to the equation below: Cytotoxicity evaluation The cytotoxicity of BCL-NEs was checked by assessing the effect on the viability of Caco-2 cells based on 3- 4,5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenylH-tetrazolium bromide MTT assay.

    Results and discussion Solubility of BCL in various vehicles The primary purpose of developing NEs is to solubilize poorly water-soluble drugs. Table 1 Solubility of baicalein in various vehicles. Preparation and characterization of BCL-NEs As a rule, NEs can be formed via self-emulsifying with agitation or vortexing in the presence of several emulsifiers.

    Enhanced bioavailability The pharmacokinetic profiles of BCL following oral administration of various formulations are shown in Figure 5 , and the main pharmacokinetic parameters are listed in Table 2.

    Improved intestinal permeability The permeability of a drug can be assessed by either Caco-2 cell monolayer model or in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion. Acceptable biocompatibility For the application of NEs, a great concern is the safety of formulation. BCL, baicalein; StD, standard deviation. Conclusion In this article, a novel NE formulation based on hemp oil and less surfactant was developed for oral delivery of BCL.

    Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. Preparation and evaluation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of baicalein.

    Comparison of spray freeze drying and the solvent evaporation method for preparing solid dispersions of baicalein with Pluronic F68 to improve dissolution and oral bioavailability. Enhanced bioavailability after oral and pulmonary administration of baicalein nanocrystal. Curr Drug Discov Technol. Zhang X, Wu B. A comparison of fish oil, flaxseed oil and hempseed oil supplementation on selected parameters of cardiovascular health in healthy volunteers.

    J Am Coll Nutr. Nanostructured lipid carriers used for oral delivery of oridonin: Enhanced bioavailability of tripterine through lipid nanoparticles using broccoli-derived lipids as a carrier material. Good Caco-2 cell culture practices. A critical appraisal of microemulsions for drug delivery: Preparation, characterization and biocompatibility studies on risperidone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles SLN: Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces.

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