Summary. The Czech Republic is the only Eastern European country in the The use of cannabis for medical purposes was legalized in spreading drug addiction, and producing substances with hormonal effects. The Czech drug-related legislation is quite extensive and includes laws as Although the Czech Republic was part of the Soviet sphere of influence for decades . This by-law sets the permitted amount of medical cannabis at 30 . ( De)criminalisation of possession of drugs for personal use – A view from. He first introduced himself as a medical doctor who, 22 years ago, had been involved in designing the first national drug strategy in the Czech Republic. commissioned the Impact Analysis Project (PAD) of the new drug legislation by an .. criminality very much depends upon the size and contents of such possession .
the in Laws Impact Czech Medical Republic Criminalization How Marijuana
I asked our team of legal experts around the globe to describe the current status of the laws in their respective countries and, in turn, how employers deal with drugs in the workplace. While your company may not be doing business in that country yet my quick trip around the world is worth a few minutes of your time. Some countries are dealing with many of the same issues, but others expect changes on the horizon.
Click here to view image. While an assortment of illegal grow sites were busted throughout Southeastern Ohio during my youth, the first place I thought of when I heard marijuana was Amsterdam. Being a child of the s, I also think of the Van Halen song. The possession of marijuana in consumer quantities up to 5 grams will not be prosecuted in the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, it is impermissible to grow marijuana on a commercial basis, but home growing in small quantities up to 5 plants will not be prosecuted.
Smoking marijuana in the workplace is not allowed. In general, the use of marijuana will be treated the same as alcohol. Also, under social circumstances in connection with the workplace such as a holiday party , it is also not acceptable to use marijuana.
Use of marijuana or alcohol at the office is considered a serious case for dismissal of an employee. Other countries in Europe have followed a similar path. It is legal for medical use in some circumstances and personal use is a not a criminal offense. Growing plants, possessing any significant quantities or selling of marijuana is a criminal offense, however. Currently, marijuana is classified as an illegal drug in Germany.
For example, Bavaria, one of the 16 states, tried to initiate a referendum to legalize marijuana in January , but the Bavarian constitutional court refused it, since it would be contrary to federal law. One exception is for pain treatment, but it is still rather rare: In general, the German law is not as developed and there is substantial uncertainty as compared to alcohol when it comes to marijuana consumption and employment law. While there is a movement to legalize marijuana, it seems unlikely that anything will change in the near future.
An employee in Germany can be terminated if he or she is under the influence of marijuana while at work. That can include instances where the employee consumed marijuana outside of the workplace, especially if it causes a safety issue truck driver etc. There are several kinds of these dismissals, including those due to misconduct e. In fact, an employee who consumes marijuana at work without it affecting his or her ability to perform job duties is generally not sufficient for a termination.
German companies must fully understand the context in which employee has used marijuana and provide sufficient notice of workplace violations if they want to survive judicial scrutiny. The use of illicit substances among the adult population overall has also fallen while the use of cannabis and other drugs among Portuguese students is slightly below the European average, according to the EMCDDA, which monitors drug risk and trends across the EU.
The Netherlands Opium Act of , which remains the basis for current drug legislation in the Netherlands, criminalises drug trafficking as well as the cultivation, production, sale and possession of drugs, punishable by up to 12 years in prison. Private drug use, however, is not classified as a crime. Such dispensaries are strictly regulated, however. Possession of less than 0. In , 20, infractions of the Opium Act were registered by the public prosecutor, a decrease from the year before.
However, legal guidelines classify such prosecutions as low priority. Drug users involved in minor offences in the Netherlands are increasingly encouraged to enter treatment programmes. The Dutch government has made clear that its priority is treatment and prevention. A great deal of information is disseminated about drugs and proper attention is paid to supervising drug users. The options for drug treatment in the Netherlands are diverse. Opioid substitution treatment, in tandem with psychosocial therapy — including relapse prevention, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family and community therapies — is the preferred treatment for opioid dependence.
Although the reported lifetime use of cannabis among young people years of age in the Netherlands was seen to be higher than the European average in a study , other data indicate a decline in the number of opioid users among the general population over the past decade.
Although most IDUs have moved from sharing syringes to having their own syringes, high-risk practices, such as preloaded syringes and back- and front-loading from a common container to individual syringes, are typical. ATS users tend to report risky sexual behaviors. Women and stimulant use. Three groups of ATS-using women were identified: A shift to homemade stimulant injection drug use is a major trend among IDUs in Georgia.
Affordability and availability of the precursor ingredients have contributed to this shift. Frequent injections, group use of stimulants, and drug-related sexual risk behavior may be associated with high risk of HIV transmission. In addition, for the first time in Georgia, different groups of female ATS drug users were described. Women might represent the most hard-to-reach and at-risk IDU population.
The data collected provide a good background to define topics for more complex, in-depth, representative, and possibly intervention-oriented research in the future. Variations in problem drug use patterns and their implications for harm reduction. This chapter describes the diversity of problem drug use patterns across Europe, the different harms that may arise, and the implications for harm reduction responses.
Harm reduction developed in response to concern about heroin injecting in the s in western Europe. Since then, other patterns of problem drug use have increased and the geographical context has expanded. While heroin continues to present challenges, the problematic use of stimulants such as meth- amphetamine or cocaine, of other opioids such as home-made opiates or synthetic opiates, and of multiple drug combinations calls for innovative responses.
These responses need to be flexible and based on consensus and cooperation between key actors, in particular from the health, social and law enforcement sectors. The Czech Republic Drug Situation. Jan Office of the Government of the Czech Republic. New developments and trends: Ethanol and other psychoactive substances In fatal road traffic accidents in the Czech Republic in To map the recent prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in deceased victims of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic.
The studied sample consisted of individuals autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine who died during traffic accidents in and were toxicologically tested for one or more of the following substances: Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration BAC 0. The sample consisted of 1, persons deceased in traffic accidents, of whom The sample has been divided into two subsamples--one of Ethanol was found in Drivers were positive for ethanol in Professional drivers were found negative for ethanol and other psychoactive substance except of one case of methamphetamine 6.
The study confirms high prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, especially stimulants methamphetamine , cannabis and benzodiazepines, among deceased participants of road traffic accidents including drivers in the Czech Republic. Mortality among amphetamine users: A systematic review of cohort studies.
AimsTo report the results of a comprehensive literature search of studies of mortality among people who use amphetamines. Shortlists of papers were circulated to experts to ascertain whether any important papers had been missed. Papers were hand-searched to retrieve any additional relevant articles. MeasurementsStudies meeting inclusion criteria were prospective cohort studies examining mortality risk among dependent and problematic amphetamine users.
Data on overall mortality, and rates for specific causes of death, were of interest. Findings articles and 9 grey literature sources were obtained. After thorough review, 72 articles were identified as reporting on amphetamine-related mortality, 7 provided data from cohort studies of users. An additional study of Swedish military conscripts was identified by the authors during correspondence with other researchers.
The geographic spread of cohorts was restricted to high income countries with the exception of one Thai study; reporting of standard parameters in mortality studies was often sparse. The estimated CMRs ranged from 0 in Australia to 2. The Czech cohort reported the only SMR: ConclusionsGiven the widespread use of amphetamines, the known non-fatal adverse effects of use and the mortality rates reported here, cohort studies investigating the morbidity and mortality associated with such drug use should be a research priority.
The aim of the study was to understand the prevalence and patterns of the non-medical injecting use of buprenorphine among drug injectors in Georgia.
A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among injecting drug users enrolled in Georgian needle exchange programmes. The questions covered topics related to drug use career, patterns frequency, history, dosage and reasons for the use of buprenorphine. Pharmaceutical buprenorphine in the form of Subutex was the most commonly injected drug in terms of lifetime While widely misused by Georgian drug injectors, Subutex is neither the principal nor the favourite drug, and it is rather used as self-treatment.
The authors consider the introduction of buprenorphine maintenance treatment to be a promising effective measure to decrease its non-medical and illegal use. Stimulant Use in Central and Eastern Europe: Tato kniha je v.
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use in active participants in traffic accidents who died during the accident or shortly after it due to injuries resulting from the accident. A special mortality register containing data of all forensic autopsies was analysed. The studied sample consisted of persons who died during traffic accidents and were active participants in those ones pedestrians, cyclists, or drivers , and were toxicologically tested during the forensic examination.
The sample consisted of 1, cases, 1, The proportion of positive detections for any psychotropic drug other than alcohol was 7. Positive findings of ethanol were significantly more common among males, whereas positive benzodiazepine tests were more frequent in females. Positive cases were significantly younger than negative ones for ethanol, volatile substances, stimulants, and cannabis; in cases of positive medicaments tests, the positive cases were significantly older than the negatives.
Methamphetamine in the Czech Republic. This paper attempts to gve as complex a picture of this phenomenon as possible by analyzing what is kown about the Czech methamphetamine situation through scientific monitoring and research.
It begins with a brief historical overview and then utilizes extensively the system of five key indicators surveys, treatment demand, problem drug use estimates, blood borne diseases, and mortality and some of the core indicators namely, drug related crime, price and purity data, and estimates of market value of drug epidemiology that were developed by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Addiction. By summarizing and carefully interpreting this data, the specifics of the Czech pervitin scene are described and future directions of possible research are identified.
Introduction to the Special Issue. A convenience sample of injecting drug users was recruited using the snowball sampling method. Sample of IDUs from 9 different Czech regions.
We used one-drop instant blood tests to determine the anti-HCV antibodies status; a structured questionnaire was completed during the interview with the researcher.
We calculated the ratio of positive findings and performed univariate analyses of correlations between predictors and independent variables. Finally, we created a logistic regression model that controlled for age, region of residence, reported sharing of injection paraphernalia, and length of injection drug use and for the interaction between length of injection use and imprisonment in order to assess the predictive value of imprisonment in an individual's history. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the test, the 'true proportion' was Many correlated independent variables were found in the univariate analyses.
In our logistic regression model, we have found that imprisonment increases the odds of being anti-HCV positive by a factor of 4. Anti-HCV seroprevalence remains relatively low in the Czech IDUs population compared to similar populations in the developed countries. The strong association of anti-HCV prevalence with imprisonment history when controlled for other potentially clinically important factors suggests the need for more effective preventive measures in Czech prisons.
General practitioners GPs in their surgeries and substitution treatment centres are the major providers of opioid maintenance treatment in a number of European countries. Although in the Czech Republic any GP has been allowed to prescribe buprenorphine Subutex since , the opioid substitution treatment provided by primary care professionals has not been the subject of research to date.
To collect and analyze data on GPs' experience gained with opioid maintenance treatment in the Czech Reupblic, their attitudes and needs. A structured questionnaire was distributed via the Bulletin of the Association of General Practitioners and district Association representatives.
Availability and effectiveness were seen as the main pros of the substitution treatment. One third of the GPs who have not prescribed opioid maintenance treatment yet are considering doing so in the future. Greater awareness of drug abuse issues and availability of methodical guidance and consulting in opioid substitution treatment are going to become the most relevant factors in the future. Possible reportability of data on opioid maintenance treatment to a central registry does not seem to be a major obstacle to implementing the substitution treatment in the GPs' surgeries.
Decision makers should take advantage of the GPs' potential to promote the opioid maintenance treatment in the Czech Republic. Drugs and traffic accidents. The aim of the study was to map the prevalence of alcohol and other psychotropic substances in deceased participants of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample included persons autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine and forensic toxicology that died during traffic accidents and were toxicologically tested in We identified cases of whom Alcohol was tested in cases, When focusing our analysis at the active participants of road traffic accidents only - pedestrians, bicyclists and drivers altogether cases - we have found alcohol to be tested in cases, out of which Average BAC in active participants of road traffic accidents positive for alcohol were 1.
Prevalence of either alcohol or any other psychotropic substances is the lowest in the category of drivers - with the exception of active cannabinoid compounds. Alcohol was by far the most prevalent psychotropic substance, also cannabis, benzodiazepines and stimulants have been found in not negligible frequencies. The study confirms high prevalence of alcohol influence in deceased participants of traffic accidents.
Prevalence of other psychotropic substances is lower by order, but it becomes also significant. This paper begins with a brief overview of the past of Czech drug policy and drug-related issues.
The second section concentrates on Czech drug policy as it has evolved after the fall of communism, identifies the main players in these events, and provides some details about the legislative procedure that led to the reintroduction of punishments for the possession of illegal drugs.
It also describes in broad terms the main aspects on the scientific evaluation of the impacts of the legislative change and the subsequent reactions by the government.
Also addressed are the recent developments in the debate about Czech drug policy. This account focuses on the legislative and highly symbolic problem of criminalization and decriminalization of the possession of drugs for personal use and briefly describes a new legislative proposal that was recently issued by the Ministry of Justice. The Czech Republic Drug Situation Jan Czech national focal point for drugs and drug addictions.
The qualitative analysis of the new drug legislation impacts as seen by the providers of social and health care for drug users. One of the three sub-studies of qualitative part of the research project PAD focused on analysis of data obtained from health- and social care professionals working with users of illegal drugs. Research design of this sub-study was shaped according to main goals of research project PAD, i.
The authors used mainly focus groups method for data gathering; only in two cases the semi-structured interview instead. Authors concentrated on the risk behaviour of drug users and their utilization of offered health and social care; other topics included information about changing situation of the drug scene and experiences with police and other representatives of institutions.
Second part of the paper deals with attitudes and opinions of health- and care professionals regarding use of illegal drugs, black markets, drug users and availability of treatment for them.
The authors did not succeed to find any direct impacts of the introduction of new Czech drug legislature in Regarding indirect impacts negative trends were accelerated such as commercionalisation of the drug scene and convergency of dealers chains and recreational scene that were mostly segregated so far.
Last but not least increasing share of highly organised criminal groups in the drug production and drug sale was identified. Report on the Drug Situation - Czech Republic. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions in breast cancer:
Harsh laws and high usage: France looks to reform its drug policies
Harm Reduction and Drug Laws in the Czech Republic exactly what has been happening in Czech drug policy and how it affects the lives of. For patients in the Czech Republic, learning the medical marijuana laws is the One of the ways the country's legislation impacts its program is by How Medical Marijuana Laws in the Czech Republic Impact Criminalization. consequences of decriminalization or legalization of . the two systematic reviews and three of the primary studies examined the legalization of medical cannabis In one primary study conducted in the Czech. Republic, decriminalization did not lead to a significant change in the age of first use of.