Animal studies is a recently recognized field in which animals are studied in a variety of cross-disciplinary ways. Scholars who engage in animal studies may be formally trained in a number of diverse fields, including geography, art history, anthropology, biology, film studies. Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, Examples of applied research include testing disease treatments, breeding, defense research and toxicology, including cosmetics testing. Systematic review of reviews including animal studies addressing therapeutic interventions for sepsis. Lamontagne F(1), Briel M, Duffett M, Fox-Robichaud A.
animal studies Included
What animals are used? What's wrong with animal testing? If animal testing is so unreliable, why does it continue? Are animal experiments needed for medical progress? Often the procedures can cause a great deal of suffering. Most animals are killed at the end of an experiment, but some may be re-used in subsequent experiments.
Here is a selection of common animal procedures:. Many different species are used around the world, but the most common include mice, fish, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, farm animals, birds, cats, dogs, mini-pigs, and non-human primates monkeys, and in some countries, chimpanzees.
Watch what scientists have to say about alternatives to animal testing. It is estimated that more than million animals worldwide are used in laboratory experiments every year.
But because only a small proportion of countries collect and publish data concerning animal use for testing and research, the precise number is unknown. For example, in the United States, up to 90 percent of the animals used in laboratories purpose-bred rats, mice and birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles and invertebrates are excluded from the official statistics, meaning that figures published by the U.
Department of Agriculture are no doubt a substantial underestimate. Within the European Union, more than 12 million animals are used each year, with France, Germany and the United Kingdom being the top three animal using countries.
Although these animals still endure the stresses and deprivation of life in the sterile laboratory environment, their lives are not recorded in official statistics. HSI believes that complete transparency about animal use is vital and that all animals bred, used or killed for the research industry should be included in official figures. For nearly a century, drug and chemical safety assessments have been based on laboratory testing involving rodents, rabbits, dogs, and other animals.
Aside from the ethical issues they pose—inflicting both physical pain as well as psychological distress and suffering on large numbers of sentient creatures—animal tests are time- and resource-intensive, restrictive in the number of substances that can be tested, provide little understanding of how chemicals behave in the body, and in many cases do not correctly predict real-world human reactions.
Similarly, health scientists are increasingly questioning the relevance of research aimed at "modelling" human diseases in the laboratory by artificially creating symptoms in other animal species. Trying to mirror human diseases or toxicity by artificially creating symptoms in mice, dogs or monkeys has major scientific limitations that cannot be overcome. Very often the symptoms and responses to potential treatments seen in other species are dissimilar to those of human patients.
As a consequence, nine out of every 10 candidate medicines that appear safe and effective in animal studies fail when given to humans.
Drug failures and research that never delivers because of irrelevant animal models not only delay medical progress, but also waste resources and risk the health and safety of volunteers in clinical trials. The University of Cambridge will use your name and email address to send you our weekly research news email.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Calculation of sample size is one of the important component of design of any research including animal studies. Alpha error, animal studies, power, sample size. To calculate the sample size by power analysis a researcher must have knowledge and information about these concepts: This is the difference between the mean of two groups quantitative data or proportions of events in two groups qualitative data.
A researcher should decide before the start of the study that how much minimum difference between two groups can be considered as clinically significant. The idea about clinically significant difference between the groups should be taken preferably from previously published studies[ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ].
Standard deviation measures variability within the sample. Information about standard deviation is needed only in the case of quantitative variables. Information about the standard deviation of a particular variable can be taken from previously published studies.
If no such study is available then author should conduct a pilot study first and standard deviation can be calculated from the pilot study[ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. This is an arbitrary value and can be decreased or increased according to the research question[ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ].
Power of a study is probability of finding an effect, which the study is aimed to find. Direction of effect one tailed or two tailed: When a researcher wants to explore the effect of some intervention, the actual effect observed in sample may be in same direction as researcher thought or it may be just opposite to that. If researcher feels that effect may be in both directions then he should use two tailed test and if he has strong reason to believe for the effect to lie in one direction then he can use one tailed test.
In animal research, two tailed tests are usually used[ 2 ]. For sample size calculation, it is important to have an idea about statistical test, which is to be applied on data.
For simple statistical tests such as Students t-test or Chi-square test, manual calculation based on formula can be carried out [Appendix], but for complex tests like ANOVA or non-parametric tests help of statistician or use of software is needed[ 2 , 4 ].
About Animal Testing
Calculation of sample size is one of the important component of design of any research including animal studies. If a researcher select less number of animals it . A book called Critical Terms for Animal Studies sets the agenda for future How did you select the terms to be included, given that there really. If animal testing is so unreliable, why does it continue? Forced chemical exposure in toxicity testing, which can include oral force-feeding.